Combined use of methylphenidate with risperidone when there is a change, whether an increase or decrease, in dosage of either or both medications, may increase the risk of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Monitor for signs of EPS.
Pregnancy Category C Methylphenidate has been shown to have teratogenic effects in rabbits when given in doses of 200 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 100 times and 40 times the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/kg and mg/m 2 basis, respectively.
A reproduction study in rats revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus at oral doses up to 30 mg/kg/day, approximately 15-fold and 3-fold the maximum recommended human dose of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets on a mg/kg and mg/m 2 basis, respectively. The approximate plasma exposure to methylphenidate plus its main metabolite PPAA in pregnant rats was 1-2 times that seen in trials in volunteers and patients with the maximum recommended dose of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets based on the AUC.
The safety of methylphenidate for use during human pregnancy has not been established. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
The effect of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets on labor and delivery in humans is unknown.
It is not known whether methylphenidate is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised if methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets is administered to a nursing woman.
In lactating female rats treated with a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg radiolabeled methylphenidate, radioactivity (representing methylphenidate and/or its metabolites) was observed in milk and levels were generally similar to those in plasma.
Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should not be used in children under six years, since safety and efficacy in this age group have not been established. Long-term effects of methylphenidate in children have not been well established.
Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets has not been studied in patients greater than 65 years of age.
Methylphenidate is a Schedule II controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act.
As noted in the Box Warning, methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be given cautiously to patients with a history of drug dependence or alcoholism. Chronic abusive use can lead to marked tolerance and psychological dependence with varying degrees of abnormal behavior. Frank psychotic episodes can occur, especially with parenteral abuse.
In two placebo-controlled human abuse potential studies, single oral doses of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets were compared to single oral doses of immediate-release methylphenidate (IR MPH) and placebo in subjects with a history of recreational stimulant use to assess relative abuse potential. For the purpose of this assessment, the response for each of the subjective measures was defined as the maximum effect within the first 8 hours after dose administration.
In one study (n=40), both methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets (108 mg) and 60 mg IR MPH compared to placebo produced statistically significantly greater responses on the five subjective measures suggestive of abuse potential. In comparisons between the two active treatments, however, methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets (108 mg) produced variable responses on positive subjective measures that were either statistically indistinguishable from (Abuse Potential, Drug Liking, Amphetamine, and Morphine Benzedrine Group [Euphoria]) or statistically less than (Stimulation – Euphoria) responses produced by 60 mg IR MPH.
In another study (n=49), both doses of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets (54 mg and 108 mg) and both doses of IR MPH (50 mg and 90 mg) produced statistically significantly greater responses compared to placebo on the two primary scales used in the study (Drug Liking, Euphoria). When doses of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets (54 mg and 108 mg) were compared to IR MPH (50 mg and 90 mg), respectively, methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets produced statistically significantly lower subjective responses on these two scales than IR MPH. Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets (108 mg) produced responses that were statistically indistinguishable from the responses on these two scales produced by IR MPH (50 mg). Differences in subjective responses to the respective doses should be considered in the context that only 22% of the total amount of methylphenidate in methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets is available for immediate release from the drug overcoat [see System Components and Performance (11.1)].
Although these findings reveal a relatively lower response to methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets on subjective measures suggestive of abuse potential compared to IR MPH at roughly equivalent total MPH doses, the relevance of these findings to the abuse potential of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets in the community is unknown.
As noted in the Box Warning, careful supervision is required during withdrawal from abusive use since severe depression may occur. Withdrawal following chronic therapeutic use may unmask symptoms of the underlying disorder that may require follow-up.
Signs and symptoms of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets overdosage, resulting principally from overstimulation of the CNS and from excessive sympathomimetic effects, may include the following: vomiting, agitation, muscle twitching, convulsion, grand mal convulsion, confusional state, hallucinations (auditory and/or visual), hyperhidrosis, headache, pyrexia, tachycardia, palpitations, heart rate increased, sinus arrhythmia, hypertension, rhabdomyolysis, mydriasis, and dry mouth.
Treatment consists of appropriate supportive measures. The patient must be protected against self-injury and against external stimuli that would aggravate overstimulation already present. Gastric contents may be evacuated by gastric lavage as indicated. Before performing gastric lavage, control agitation and seizures if present and protect the airway. Other measures to detoxify the gut include administration of activated charcoal and a cathartic. Intensive care must be provided to maintain adequate circulation and respiratory exchange; external cooling procedures may be required for pyrexia.
Efficacy of peritoneal dialysis or extracorporeal hemodialysis for methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets overdosage has not been established.
The prolonged release of methylphenidate from methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be considered when treating patients with overdose.
As with the management of all overdosage, the possibility of multiple-drug ingestion should be considered. The physician may wish to consider contacting a poison control center for up-to-date information on the management of overdosage with methylphenidate.
Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets, USP is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets are available in four tablet strengths. Each extended-release tablet for once-a-day oral administration contains 18, 27, 36, or 54 mg of methylphenidate HCl USP and is designed to have a 12-hour duration of effect. Chemically, methylphenidate HCl is d, l (racemic) methyl α-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate hydrochloride. Its empirical formula is C 14 H 19 NO 2 •HCl. Its structural formula is:
Methylphenidate HCl USP is a white to off-white crystalline powder. Its solutions are acid to litmus. It is freely soluble in water and in methanol, soluble in alcohol, and slightly soluble in chloroform and in acetone. Its molecular weight is 269.77.
Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets, USP also contains the following inert ingredients and are common to all strengths: butylated hydroxytoluene, cellulose acetate, hypromellose, phosphoric acid, polyethylene glycol, polyethylene oxides, povidone, propylene glycol, sodium chloride, stearic acid, succinic acid, ferric oxide yellow, FD&C Red No 40 and titanium dioxide. The 18 mg tablet strength also contains iron oxide yellow and Polysorbate 80. The 27 mg tablet strength also contains iron oxide red. The 36 mg tablet strength also contains talc. The 54 mg tablet strength also contains iron oxide yellow, iron oxide red and talc.
Each tablet strength also contains black iron oxide, hypromellose and propylene glycol as imprinting ink.
USP Dissolution Test Pending.
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