Methylphenidate Hydrochloride (Page 3 of 7)

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Clinically Important Interactions with Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

Do not administer Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules concomitantly or within 14 days after discontinuing MAOI treatment. Concomitant use of MAOIs and CNS stimulants can cause hypertensive crisis. Potential outcomes include death, stroke, myocardial infarction, aortic dissection, ophthalmological complications, eclampsia, pulmonary edema, and renal failure [see Contraindications (4)].

Antihypertensive Drugs

Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules may decrease the effectiveness of drugs used to treat hypertension. Monitor blood pressure and adjust the dosage of the antihypertensive drug as needed [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

Risperidone

Combined use of methylphenidate with risperidone when there is a change, whether an increase or decrease, in dosage of either or both medications, may increase the risk of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Monitor for signs of EPS.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Exposure Registry

There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the National Pregnancy Registry for Psychostimulants at 1-866-961-2388.

Risk Summary

Limited published studies report on the use of methylphenidate in pregnant women; however, the data are insufficient to inform any drug-associated risks. No effects on morphological development were observed in embryo-fetal development studies with oral administration of methylphenidate to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at doses up to 10 and 15 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 60 mg/day given to adolescents on a mg/m2 basis. However, spina bifida was observed in rabbits at a dose 52 times the MRHD given to adolescents. A decrease in pup body weight was observed in a pre- and post-natal development study with oral administration of methylphenidate to rats throughout pregnancy and lactation at the highest dose of 60 mg/kg/day (6 times the MRHD given to adolescents) [see Data]. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population are unknown. However, the background risk in the U.S. general population of major birth defects is 2% to 4% and of miscarriage is 15% to 20% of clinically recognized pregnancies.

Clinical Considerations

Fetal/Neonatal adverse reactions

CNS stimulants, such as Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules, can cause vasoconstriction and thereby decrease placental perfusion. No fetal and/or neonatal adverse reactions have been reported with the use of therapeutic doses of methylphenidate during pregnancy; however, premature delivery and low birth weight infants have been reported in amphetamine-dependent mothers.

Data

Animal Data

In embryo-fetal development studies conducted in rats and rabbits, methylphenidate was administered orally at doses of up to 75 and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively, during the period of organogenesis. Malformations (increased incidence of fetal spina bifida) were observed in rabbits at the highest dose, which is approximately 52 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 60 mg/day given to adolescents on a mg/m2 basis. The no effect level for embryo-fetal development in rabbits was 60 mg/kg/day (15 times the MRHD given to adolescents on a mg/m2 basis). There was no evidence of morphological development effects in rats, although increased incidences of fetal skeletal variations were seen at the highest dose level (10 times the MRHD of 60 mg/day given to adolescents on a mg/m2 basis), which was also maternally toxic. The no effect level for embryo-fetal development in rats was 25 mg/kg/day (2 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). When methylphenidate was administered to rats throughout pregnancy and lactation at doses of up to 45 mg/kg/day, offspring body weight gain was decreased at the highest dose (6 times the MRHD of 60 mg/day given to adolescents on a mg/m2 basis), but no other effects on postnatal development were observed. The no effect level for pre- and postnatal development in rats was 15 mg/kg/day (1.5 times the MRHD given to adolescents on a mg/m2 basis).

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

Limited published literature, based on breast milk sampling from five mothers, reports that methylphenidate is present in human milk, which resulted in infant doses of 0.16% to 0.7% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage and a milk/plasma ratio ranging between 1.1 and 2.7. There are no reports of adverse effects on the breastfed infant and no effects on milk production. However, long-term neurodevelopmental effects on infants from stimulant exposure are unknown. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules or from the underlying maternal condition.

Clinical Considerations

Monitor breastfeeding infants for adverse reactions, such as agitation, anorexia, and reduced weight gain.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules in pediatric patients under 6 years have not been established.

Safety and efficacy of Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules were evaluated in a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study in 119 children 4 to <6 years of age with ADHD followed by a 12-month open-label extension in 44 of these children. In these studies, patients experienced high rates of adverse reactions, most notably weight loss. Comparing weights prior to initiation of Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules (in the safety and efficacy study) to weights after 12 months of treatment (in the open-label extension), 20 of 39 patients with data (50%) had lost enough weight to decrease 10 or more percentiles on a Centers for Disease Control growth chart for weight. In addition, systemic drug exposures in patients 4 to <6 years of age were higher than those observed in older children and adolescents at the same dose (2 to 3 fold higher Cmax and AUC). Therefore, the benefits of Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules do not outweigh the risks in pediatric patients 4 to <6 years of age.

The safety and effectiveness of Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules have been established in pediatric patients ages 6 to 17 years in two adequate and well-controlled clinical trials [see Clinical Studies (14)]. The long-term efficacy of methylphenidate in pediatric patients has not been established.

Long Term Suppression of Growth

Growth should be monitored during treatment with stimulants, including Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules. Pediatric patients who are not growing or gaining weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data

Rats treated with methylphenidate early in the postnatal period through sexual maturation demonstrated a decrease in spontaneous locomotor activity in adulthood. A deficit in acquisition of a specific learning task was observed in females only. The doses at which these findings were observed are at least 6 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 60 mg/day given to children on a mg/m2 basis.

In the study conducted in young rats, methylphenidate was administered orally at doses of up to 100 mg/kg/day for 9 weeks, starting early in the postnatal period (postnatal day 7) and continuing through sexual maturity (postnatal week 10). When these animals were tested as adults (postnatal weeks 13-14), decreased spontaneous locomotor activity was observed in males and females previously treated with 50 mg/kg/day (approximately 6 times the MRHD of 60 mg/day given to children on a mg/m2 basis) or greater, and a deficit in the acquisition of a specific learning task was observed in females exposed to the highest dose (8 times the MRHD given to children on a mg/m2 basis). The no effect level for juvenile neurobehavioral development in rats was 5 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.5 times the MRHD given to children on a mg/m2 basis). The clinical significance of the long-term behavioral effects observed in rats is unknown.

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