Methylphenidate Hydrochloride (CD) (Page 3 of 8)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postmarketing use of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release capsules (CD) and other methylphenidate hydrochloride products. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Adverse Reactions with methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release capsules (CD)

Blood and the lymphatic system disorders: thrombocytopenia

Cardiac disorders: cardiac arrest, sudden death

Immune system disorders: angioedema

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: rhabdomyolysis

Psychiatric disorders: abnormal behavior, aggression, anxiety, irritability, obsessive-compulsive disorder, suicidal behavior (including completed suicide), libido changes, serotonin syndrome in combination with serotonergic drugs

Nervous System Disorder: migraine, reversible ischemic neurological deficit, bruxism

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: fixed drug eruption

Vascular disorders: peripheral coldness, Raynaud’s phenomenon

Adverse Reactions with Other Methylphenidate Hydrochloride ProductsBlood and the lymphatic system disorders: leukopenia, anemia, pancytopenia

Cardiac disorders: palpitations; increased blood pressure, tachycardia, angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, bradycardia, extrasystole

Eye disorders: blurred vision, difficulties in visual accommodation, diplopia, mydriasis

Gastrointestinal disorders: nausea, abdominal pain, dry mouth, vomiting, dyspepsia, diarrhea, constipation

General Disorders: fatigue, hyperpyrexia

Hepatobiliary disorders: abnormal liver function, ranging from transaminase elevation to severe hepatic injury

Immune system disorders: hypersensitivity, including anaphylaxis, auricular swelling, bullous conditions, eruptions, exanthemas

Infections and infestations: nasopharyngitis

Metabolism and nutrition disorders: decreased appetite, reduced weight gain and suppression of growth during prolonged use in pediatric patients

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: arthralgia, muscle cramps, myalgia, muscle twitching

Nervous System Disorder: nervousness, dizziness, headache, dyskinesia, including choreoatheetoid movements, drowsiness, tremor, convulsions, cerebrovascular disorders (including vasculitis, cerebral hemorrhages and cerebrovascular accidents), serotonin syndrome in combination with serotonergic drugs

Psychiatric disorders: depressed mood, restlessness, agitation, psychosis (sometimes with visual and tactile hallucinations), affect liability, mania, disorientation

Renal and urinary disorders: hematuria

Reproductive system and breast disorders: gynecomastia

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: pharyngolaryngeal pain, dyspnea, cough

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: scalp hair loss, hyperhidrosis, angioneurotic edema, erythema, exfoliative dermatitis, thrombocytopenic purpura, urticaria, erythema multiforme rash

Urogenital disorders: priapism

Vascular disorders: isolated cases of cerebral arteritis and/or occlusion

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Table 3 presents clinically important drug interactions with methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release capsules (CD).

Table 3: Clinically Important Drug Interactions with Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules (CD)

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI)

Clinical Impact:

Concomitant use of MAOIs and CNS stimulants, including, methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release capsules (CD) can cause hypertensive crisis. Potential outcomes include death, stroke, myocardial infarction, aortic dissection, ophthalmological complications, eclampsia, pulmonary edema, and renal failure [see Contraindications (4)].

Intervention:

Concomitant use of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release capsules (CD) with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or within 14 days after discontinuing MAOI treatment is contraindicated.

Antihypertensive Drugs

Clinical Impact:

Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release capsules (CD) may decrease the effectiveness of drugs used to treat hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

Intervention:

Adjust the dosage of the antihypertensive drug as needed.

Risperidone

Clinical Impact:

Combined use of methylphenidate with risperidone when there is a change, whether an increase or decrease, in dosage of either or both medications, may increase the risk of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS).

Intervention:

Monitor for signs of EPS.


8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to ADHD medications, including methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release capsules (CD), during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the National Pregnancy Registry for Psychostimulants at 1-866-961-2388.

Risk Summary
Published studies and postmarketing reports on methylphenidate use during pregnancy have not identified a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. There may be risks to the fetus associated with the use of CNS stimulants use during pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations).

No effects on morphological development were observed in embryo-fetal development studies with oral administration of methylphenidate to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at doses up to 10 and 15 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 60 mg/day given to adolescents on a mg/m2 basis. However, spina bifida was observed in rabbits at a dose 53 times the MRHD given to adolescents. A decrease in pup body weight was observed in a pre-and post-natal development study with oral administration of methylphenidate to rats throughout pregnancy and lactation at doses 6 times the MRHD given to adolescents (see Data).

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
CNS stimulants, such as methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release capsules (CD), can cause vasoconstriction and thereby decrease placental perfusion. No fetal and/or neonatal adverse reactions have been reported with the use of therapeutic doses of methylphenidate during pregnancy; however, premature delivery and low birth weight infants have been reported in amphetamine-dependent mothers.

Animal Data
In embryo-fetal development studies conducted in rats and rabbits, methylphenidate was administered orally at doses of up to 75 and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively, during the period of organogenesis. Malformations (increased incidence of fetal spina bifida) were observed in rabbits at the highest dose, which is approximately 52 times the MRHD of 60 mg/day given to adolescents on a mg/m2 basis. The no effect level for embryo-fetal development in rabbits was 60 mg/kg/day (15 times the MRHD given to adolescents on a mg/m2 basis). There was no evidence of morphological development effects in rats, although increased incidences of fetal skeletal variations were seen at the highest dose level (10 times the MRHD of 60 mg/day given to adults on a mg/m2 basis), which was also maternally toxic. The no effect level for embryo-fetal development in rats was 25 mg/kg/day (3 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). When methylphenidate was administered to rats throughout pregnancy and lactation at doses of up to 45 mg/kg/day, offspring body weight gain was decreased at the highest dose (6 times the MRHD of 60 mg/day given to adults on a mg/m2 basis), but no other effects on postnatal development were observed. The no effect level for pre-and postnatal development in rats was 15 mg/kg/day (~2 times the MRHD given to adolescents on a mg/m2 basis).

All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.

This site is provided for educational and informational purposes only, in accordance with our Terms of Use, and is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor, nurse, nurse practitioner or other qualified health professional.

Privacy Policy | Copyright © 2022. All Rights Reserved.