METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE- methylphenidate hydrochloride tablet
METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE- methylphenidate hydrochloride tablet, extended release
UCB Pharma, Inc.
Methylphenidate hydrochloride is a mild central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. Methylphenidate hydrochloride is available as 5, 10, and 20 mg tablets for oral administration. A 20 mg Extended-Release tablet for oral administration is also available.
Methylphenidate hydrochloride is methyl α-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate hydrochloride, and its structural formula is:
Methylphenidate hydrochloride is a white, odorless, fine crystalline powder. Its solutions are acid to litmus. It is freely soluble in water and in methanol, soluble in alcohol, and slightly soluble in chloroform and in acetone. Its chemical formula is C14 H19 NO2 •HCl, and its molecular weight is 269.77.
Inactive Ingredients: Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets: lactose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate; 5 mg contains D&C Yellow #10; 10 mg contains FD&C Green #3, and 20 mg contains FD&C Yellow #6.
Methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablets: cetyl alcohol, ethylcellulose, anhydrous lactose and magnesium stearate.
Methylphenidate is a mild central nervous system stimulant.
The mode of action in man is not completely understood, but methylphenidate presumably activates the brain stem arousal system and cortex to produce its stimulant effect.
There is neither specific evidence which clearly establishes the mechanism whereby methylphenidate produces its mental and behavioral effects in children, nor conclusive evidence regarding how these effects relate to the condition of the central nervous system.
Methylphenidate hydrochloride in extended-release tablets is more slowly but as extensively absorbed as in the regular tablets. Bioavailability of the UCB methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release tablet was compared to a sustained-release reference product and an immediate-release product. The extent of absorption for the three products was similar, and the rate of absorption of the two sustained-release products was not statistically different.
In another reported study with a brand of Methylphenidate HCl sustained-release, the time to peak rate in children was reported as 4.7 hours (1.3 — 8.2 hours) for the sustained-release tablet dosage form and 1.9 hours (0.3 — 4.4 hours) for immediate release tablets. An average of 67% of a sustained-release tablet dosage form was excreted in children compared to 86% in adults.
In a clinical study involving adult subjects who received Extended-release (ER) tablets, plasma concentrations of methylphenidate hydrochloride’s major metabolite appeared to be greater in females than in males. No gender differences were observed for methylphenidate hydrochloride’s plasma concentration in the same subjects.
Attention Deficit Disorders (previously known as Minimal Brain Dysfunction in Children). Other terms being used to describe the behavioral syndrome below include: Hyperkinetic Child Syndrome, Minimal Brain Damage, Minimal Cerebral Dysfunction, Minor Cerebral Dysfunction.
Methylphenidate hydrochloride is indicated as an integral part of a total treatment program which typically includes other remedial measures (psychological, educational, social) for a stabilizing effect in children with a behavioral syndrome characterized by the following group of developmentally inappropriate symptoms: moderate-to-severe distractibility, short attention span, hyperactivity, emotional lability, and impulsivity. The diagnosis of this syndrome should not be made with finality when these symptoms are only of comparatively recent origin. Nonlocalizing (soft) neurological signs, learning disability, and abnormal EEG may or may not be present, and a diagnosis of central nervous system dysfunction may or may not be warranted.
Specific etiology of this syndrome is unknown, and there is no single diagnostic test. Adequate diagnosis requires the use not only of medical but of special psychological, educational, and social resources.
Characteristics commonly reported include: chronic history of short attention span, distractibility, emotional lability, impulsivity, and moderate-to-severe hyperactivity; minor neurological signs and abnormal EEG. Learning may or may not be impaired. The diagnosis must be based upon a complete history and evaluation of the child and not solely on the presence of one or more of these characteristics.
Drug treatment is not indicated for all children with this syndrome. Stimulants are not intended for use in the child who exhibits symptoms secondary to environmental factors and/or primary psychiatric disorders, including psychosis. Appropriate educational placement is essential and psychosocial intervention is generally necessary. When remedial measures alone are insufficient, the decision to prescribe stimulant medication will depend upon the physician’s assessment of the chronicity and severity of the child’s symptoms.
Methylphenidate is contraindicated in patients with marked anxiety, tension and agitation, since the drug may aggravate these symptoms.
Methylphenidate is contraindicated in patients known to be hypersensitive to methylphenidate or other components of the product.
Methylphenidate is contraindicated in patients with glaucoma.
Methylphenidate is contraindicated in patients with motor tics or with a family history or diagnosis of Tourette’s syndrome (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Methylphenidate is contraindicated during treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and also within a minimum of 14 days following discontinuation of a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (hypertensive crises may result).
Methylphenidate is contraindicated in patients with severe hypertension, angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis (see WARNINGS).
Sudden death has been reported in association with CNS stimulant treatment at usual doses in children and adolescents with structural cardiac abnormalities or other serious heart problems. Although some serious heart problems alone carry an increased risk of sudden death, stimulant products generally should not be used in children or adolescents with known serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, or other serious cardiac problems that may place them at increased vulnerability to the sympathomimetic effects of a stimulant drug (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Sudden deaths, stroke, and myocardial infarction have been reported in adults taking stimulant drugs at usual doses for ADHD. Although the role of stimulants in these adult cases is also unknown, adults have a greater likelihood than children of having serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, coronary artery disease, or other serious cardiac problems. Adults with such abnormalities should also generally not be treated with stimulant drugs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Stimulant medications cause a modest increase in average blood pressure (about 2-4 mmHg) and average heart rate (about 3-6 bpm), and individuals may have larger increases. While the mean changes alone would not be expected to have short-term consequences, all patients should be monitored for larger changes in heart rate and blood pressure. Caution is indicated in treating patients whose underlying medical conditions might be compromised by increases in blood pressure or heart rate, e.g., those with pre-existing hypertension, heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, or ventricular arrhythmia (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Children, adolescents, or adults who are being considered for treatment with stimulant medications should have a careful history (including assessment for a family history of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia) and physical exam to assess for the presence of cardiac disease, and should receive further cardiac evaluation if findings suggest such disease (e.g., electrocardiogram and echocardiogram). Patients who develop symptoms such as exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or other symptoms suggestive of cardiac disease during stimulant treatment should undergo a prompt cardiac evaluation.
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.