Metoclopramide (Page 4 of 7)

7.2 Effects of Metoclopramide on Other Drugs

Table 4 displays the effects of metoclopramide on other drugs.

Table 4. Effects of Metoclopramide on Other Drugs
*
Interaction does not apply to posaconazole delayed-release tablets

Dopaminergic Agonists and Drugs Increasing Dopamine Concentrations

Clinical Impact

Opposing effects of metoclopramide and the interacting drug on dopamine. Potential exacerbation of symptoms (e.g., parkinsonian symptoms).

Intervention

Avoid concomitant use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ].

Examples

Apomorphine, bromocriptine, cabergoline, levodopa, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine

Succinylcholine, Mivacurium

Clinical Impact

Metoclopramide inhibits plasma cholinesterase leading to enhanced neuromuscular blockade.

Intervention

Monitor for signs and symptoms of prolonged neuromuscular blockade

Drugs with Absorption Altered due to Increased Gastrointestinal Motility

Clinical Impact

The effect of metoclopramide on other drugs is variable. Increased gastrointestinal (GI) motility by metoclopramide may impact absorption of other drugs leading to decreased or increased drug exposure.

Intervention

Drugs with Decreased Absorption (e.g., digoxin, atovaquone, posaconazole oral suspension*, fosfomycin): Monitor for reduced therapeutic effect of the interacting drug. For digoxin monitor therapeutic drug concentrations and increase the digoxin dose as needed (see prescribing information for digoxin).

Drugs with Increased Absorption (e.g., sirolimus, tacrolimus, cyclosporine): Monitor therapeutic drug concentrations and adjust the dose as needed. See prescribing information for the interacting drug.

Insulin

Clinical Impact

Increased GI motility by metoclopramide may increase delivery of food to the intestines and increase blood glucose.

Intervention

Monitor blood glucose and adjust insulin dosage regimen as needed.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Published studies, including retrospective cohort studies, national registry studies, and meta-analyses, do not report an increased risk of adverse pregnancy-related outcomes with use of metoclopramide during pregnancy.

There are potential risks to the neonate following exposure in utero to metoclopramide during delivery [see Clinical Considerations ]. In animal reproduction studies, no adverse developmental effects were observed with oral administration of metoclopramide to pregnant rats and rabbits at exposures about 6 and 12 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) [see Data ].

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defects, loss or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in the clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions

Metoclopramide crosses the placental barrier and may cause extrapyramidal signs and methemoglobinemia in neonates with maternal administration during delivery. Monitor neonates for extrapyramidal signs [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2), Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].

Data

Animal Data

Reproduction studies have been performed following administration of oral metoclopramide during organogenesis in pregnant rats at about 6 times the MRHD calculated on body surface area and in pregnant rabbits at about 12 times the MRHD calculated on body surface area. No evidence of adverse developmental effects due to metoclopramide were observed.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

Limited published data report the presence of metoclopramide in human milk in variable amounts. Breastfed infants exposed to metoclopramide have experienced gastrointestinal adverse reactions, including intestinal discomfort and increased intestinal gas formation [see Data ]. Metoclopramide elevates prolactin levels [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ]; however, the published data are not adequate to support drug effects on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for metoclopramide and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from metoclopramide or from the underlying maternal condition.

Clinical Considerations

Monitor breastfeeding neonates because metoclopramide may cause extrapyramidal signs (dystonias) and methemoglobinemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2), Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].

Data

In published clinical studies, the estimated amount of metoclopramide received by the breastfed infant was less than 10% of the maternal weight-adjusted dose. In one study, the estimated daily amount of metoclopramide received by infants from breast milk ranged from 6 to 24 mcg/kg/day in early puerperium (3 to 9 days postpartum) and from 1 to 13 mcg/kg/day at 8 to 12 weeks postpartum.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Metoclopramide is not recommended for use in pediatric patients due to the risk of tardive dyskinesia (TD) and other extrapyramidal symptoms as well as the risk of methemoglobinemia in neonates. The safety and effectiveness of metoclopramide in pediatric patients have not been established.

Dystonias and other extrapyramidal symptoms associated with metoclopramide are more common in pediatric patients than in adults [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2)]. In addition, neonates have reduced levels of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, making them more susceptible to methemoglobinemia, a possible adverse reaction of metoclopramide use in neonates [see Use in Specific Populations (8.8) ].

8.5 Geriatric Use

Metoclopramide is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions, including tardive dyskinesia (TD), may be greater in patients with impaired renal function [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function and may be more sensitive to the therapeutic or adverse effects of metoclopramide; therefore, consider a reduced dosage of metoclopramide in elderly patients [see Boxed Warning, Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.3), Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

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