Metoprolol Succinate ER

METOPROLOL SUCCINATE ER- metoprolol succinate tablet, extended release
Northwind Pharmaceuticals

Indications and Usage

1.1 Hypertension

Metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure lowers the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including metoprolol.

Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than 1 drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).

Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly.

Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.

Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (eg, on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.

Metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets may be administered with other antihypertensive agents.

1.2 Angina Pectoris

Metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets are indicated in the long-term treatment of angina pectoris, to reduce angina attacks and to improve exercise tolerance.

1.3 Heart Failure

Metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets are indicated for the treatment of stable, symptomatic (NYHA Class II or III) heart failure of ischemic, hypertensive, or cardiomyopathic origin. It was studied in patients already receiving ACE inhibitors, diuretics, and, in the majority of cases, digitalis. In this population, metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets decreased the rate of mortality plus hospitalization, largely through a reduction in cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for heart failure.


Please review the manufacturer’s complete drug information available from the FDA at www.fda.gov
Permanent Link: https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=71c1d33e-be6f-6d59-b715-45075445891a

Dosage and Administration

Metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets intended for once daily administration. For treatment of hypertension and angina, when switching from immediate release metoprolol to metoprolol succinate extended-release, use the same total daily dose of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets. Individualize the dosage of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets. Titration may be needed in some patients.

Metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets are scored and can be divided; however, do not crush or chew the whole or half tablet.

2.1 Hypertension

Adults: The usual initial dosage is 25 mg to 100 mg daily in a single dose. The dosage may be increased at weekly (or longer) intervals until optimum blood pressure reduction is achieved. In general, the maximum effect of any given dosage level will be apparent after 1 week of therapy. Dosages above 400 mg per day have not been studied.

Pediatric Hypertensive Patients ≥ 6 Years of age: A pediatric clinical hypertension study in patients 6 to 16 years of age did not meet its primary endpoint (dose response for reduction in SBP); however some other endpoints demonstrated effectiveness [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. If selected for treatment, the recommended starting dose of metoprolol succinate extended-release is 1 mg/kg once daily, but the maximum initial dose should not exceed 50 mg once daily. Dosage should be adjusted according to blood pressure response. Doses above 2 mg/kg (or in excess of 200 mg) once daily have not been studied in pediatric patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Metoprolol succinate extended-release is not recommended in pediatric patients < 6 years of age [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].

2.2 Angina Pectoris

Individualize the dosage of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets. The usual initial dosage is 100 mg daily, given in a single dose. Gradually increase the dosage at weekly intervals until optimum clinical response has been obtained or there is a pronounced slowing of the heart rate. Dosages above 400 mg per day have not been studied. If treatment is to be discontinued, reduce the dosage gradually over a period of 1 to 2 weeks [see Warnings and Precautions (5)].

2.3 Heart Failure

Dosage must be individualized and closely monitored during up-titration. Prior to initiation of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets, stabilize the dose of other heart failure drug therapy. The recommended starting dose of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets is 25 mg once daily for two weeks in patients with NYHA Class II heart failure and 12.5 mg once daily in patients with more severe heart failure. Double the dose every two weeks to the highest dosage level tolerated by the patient or up to 200 mg of metoprolol succinate extended-release. Initial difficulty with titration should not preclude later attempts to introduce metoprolol succinate extended-release. If patients experience symptomatic bradycardia, reduce the dose of metoprolol succinate extended-release. If transient worsening of heart failure occurs, consider treating with increased doses of diuretics, lowering the dose of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets or temporarily discontinuing it. The dose of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets should not be increased until symptoms of worsening heart failure have been stabilized.


Please review the manufacturer’s complete drug information available from the FDA at www.fda.gov
Permanent Link: https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=71c1d33e-be6f-6d59-b715-45075445891a

Dosage Forms and Strengths

100 mg tablets: white to off-white, round shaped, film-coated tablets, debossed with “M” and “3” separated by breakline on one side and plain on other side.

200 mg tablets: white to off-white, oval shaped film-coated tablets, debossed with “M” and “4” separated by breakline on one side and plain on other side.

Please review the manufacturer’s complete drug information available from the FDA at www.fda.gov
Permanent Link: https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=71c1d33e-be6f-6d59-b715-45075445891a

Contraindications

Metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets are contraindicated in severe bradycardia, second or third degree heart block, cardiogenic shock, decompensated cardiac failure, sick sinus syndrome (unless a permanent pacemaker is in place), and in patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product.

Please review the manufacturer’s complete drug information available from the FDA at www.fda.gov
Permanent Link: https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=71c1d33e-be6f-6d59-b715-45075445891a

Warnings and Precautions

5.1 Ischemic Heart Disease

Following abrupt cessation of therapy with certain beta-blocking agents, exacerbations of angina pectoris and, in some cases, myocardial infarction have occurred. When discontinuing chronically administered metoprolol succinate extended-release, particularly in patients with ischemic heart disease, gradually reduce the dosage over a period of 1 to 2 weeks and monitor the patient. If angina markedly worsens or acute coronary ischemia develops, promptly reinstate metoprolol succinate extended-release, and take measures appropriate for the management of unstable angina. Warn patients not to interrupt therapy without their physician’s advice. Because coronary artery disease is common and may be unrecognized, avoid abruptly discontinuing metoprolol succinate extended-release in patients treated only for hypertension.

5.2 Heart Failure

Worsening cardiac failure may occur during up-titration of metoprolol succinate extended-release. If such symptoms occur, increase diuretics and restore clinical stability before advancing the dose of metoprolol succinate extended-release [see Dosage and Administration (2)]. It may be necessary to lower the dose of metoprolol succinate extended-release or temporarily discontinue it. Such episodes do not preclude subsequent successful titration of metoprolol succinate extended-release.

5.3 Bronchospastic Disease

PATIENTS WITH BRONCHOSPASTIC DISEASES SHOULD, IN GENERAL, NOT RECEIVE BETA-BLOCKERS. Because of its relative beta1 cardio-selectivity, however, metoprolol succinate extended-release may be used in patients with bronchospastic disease who do not respond to, or cannot tolerate, other antihypertensive treatment. Because beta1-selectivity is not absolute, use the lowest possible dose of metoprolol succinate extended-release. Bronchodilators, including beta2-agonists, should be readily available or administered concomitantly, [see Dosage and Administration (2)].

5.4 Pheochromocytoma

If metoprolol succinate extended-release is used in the setting of pheochromocytoma, it should be given in combination with an alpha blocker, and only after the alpha blocker has been initiated. Administration of beta-blockers alone in the setting of pheochromocytoma has been associated with a paradoxical increase in blood pressure due to the attenuation of beta-mediated vasodilatation in skeletal muscle.

5.5 Major Surgery

Avoid initiation of a high-dose regimen of extended release metoprolol in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, since such use in patients with cardiovascular risk factors has been associated with bradycardia, hypotension, stroke and death.

Chronically administered beta-blocking therapy should not be routinely withdrawn prior to major surgery, however, the impaired ability of the heart to respond to reflex adrenergic stimuli may augment the risks of general anesthesia and surgical procedures.

5.6 Diabetes and Hypoglycemia

Beta-blockers may mask tachycardia occurring with hypoglycemia, but other manifestations such as dizziness and sweating may not be significantly affected.

5.7 Hepatic Impairment

Consider initiating metoprolol succinate extended-release therapy at doses lower than those recommended for a given indication; gradually increase dosage to optimize therapy, while monitoring closely for adverse events.

5.8 Thyrotoxicosis

Beta-adrenergic blockade may mask certain clinical signs of hyperthyroidism, such as tachycardia. Abrupt withdrawal of beta-blockade may precipitate a thyroid storm.

5.9 Anaphylactic Reaction

While taking beta-blockers, patients with a history of severe anaphylactic reactions to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated challenge and may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat an allergic reaction.

5.10 Peripheral Vascular Disease

Beta-blockers can precipitate or aggravate symptoms of arterial insufficiency in patients with peripheral vascular disease.

5.11 Calcium Channel Blockers

Because of significant inotropic and chronotropic effects in patients treated with beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers of the verapamil and diltiazem type, caution should be exercised in patients treated with these agents concomitantly.


Please review the manufacturer’s complete drug information available from the FDA at www.fda.gov
Permanent Link: https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=71c1d33e-be6f-6d59-b715-45075445891a

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