Metoprolol Succinate ER (Page 2 of 5)

Adverse Reactions

The following adverse reactions are described elsewhere in labeling:

Worsening angina or myocardial infarction. [see Warnings and Precautions (5)]
Worsening heart failure. [see Warnings and Precautions (5)]
Worsening AV block. [see Contraindications (4)]

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximating rates.

Hypertension and Angina:

Most adverse reactions have been mild and transient. The most common (>2%) adverse reactions are tiredness, dizziness, depression, diarrhea, shortness of breath, bradycardia, and rash.

Heart Failure:

In the MERIT-HF study comparing metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets in daily doses up to 200 mg (mean dose 159 mg once-daily; n=1990) to placebo (n=2001), 10.3% of metoprolol succinate extended-release patients discontinued for adverse reactions vs. 12.2% of placebo patients.

The table below lists adverse reactions in the MERIT-HF study that occurred at an incidence of ≥ 1% in the metoprolol succinate extended-release group and greater than placebo by more than 0.5%, regardless of the assessment of causality.

Adverse Reactions Occurring in the MERIT-HF Study at an Incidence ≥ 1 % in the Metoprolol Succinate Extended-Release Tablets Group and Greater Than Placebo by More Than 0.5 %
Metoprolol Succinate
Extended-Release Tablets
n=1990 % of patients Placebo
n=2001 % of patients
Dizziness/vertigo 1.8 1
Bradycardia 1.5 0.4
Accident and/or injury 1.4 0.8

Post-operative Adverse Events:In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 8351 patients with or at risk for atherosclerotic disease undergoing non-vascular surgery and who were not taking beta–blocker therapy, metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets 100 mg was started 2 to 4 hours prior to surgery then continued for 30 days at 200 mg per day. Metoprolol succinate extended-release use was associated with a higher incidence of bradycardia (6.6% vs. 2.4% ; HR 2.74; 95% CI 2.19,3.43), hypotension (15% vs. 9.7%; HR 1.55 95% CI 1.37,1.74), stroke (1% vs 0.5%; HR 2.17; 95% CI 1.26,3.74) and death (3.1% vs 2.3%; HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.03, 1.74) compared to placebo.

6.2 Post-Marketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of metoprolol succinate extended-release or immediate-release metoprolol. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Cardiovascular: Cold extremities, arterial insufficiency (usually of the Raynaud type), palpitations, peripheral edema, syncope, chest pain and hypotension.

Respiratory: Wheezing (bronchospasm), dyspnea.

Central Nervous System: Confusion, short-term memory loss, headache, somnolence, nightmares, insomnia. anxiety/nervousness, hallucinations, paresthesia.

Gastrointestinal: Nausea, dry mouth, constipation, flatulence, heartburn, hepatitis, vomiting.

Hypersensitive Reactions: Pruritus.

Miscellaneous: Musculoskeletal pain, arthralgia, blurred vision, decreased libido, male impotence, tinnitus, reversible alopecia, agranulocytosis, dry eyes, worsening of psoriasis, Peyronie’s disease, sweating, photosensitivity, taste disturbance.

Potential Adverse Reactions: In addition, there are adverse reactions not listed above that have been reported with other beta-adrenergic blocking agents and should be considered potential adverse reactions to metoprolol succinate extended-release.

Central Nervous System: Reversible mental depression progressing to catatonia; an acute reversible syndrome characterized by disorientation for time and place, short-term memory loss, emotional lability, clouded sensorium, and decreased performance on neuropsychometrics.

Hematologic: Agranulocytosis, nonthrombocytopenic purpura, thrombocytopenic purpura.

Hypersensitive Reactions: Laryngospasm, respiratory distress.

6.3 Laboratory Test Findings

Clinical laboratory findings may include elevated levels of serum transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase.

Please review the manufacturer’s complete drug information available from the FDA at www.fda.gov
Permanent Link: https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=71c1d33e-be6f-6d59-b715-45075445891a

Drug Interactions

7.1 Catecholamine Depleting Drugs

Catecholamine-depleting drugs (e.g., reserpine, monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors) may have an additive effect when given with beta-blocking agents. Observe patients treated with metoprolol succinate extended-release plus a catecholamine depletor for evidence of hypotension or marked bradycardia, which may produce vertigo, syncope, or postural hypotension.

7.2 CYP2D6 Inhibitors

Drugs that inhibit CYP2D6 such as quinidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and propafenone are likely to increase metoprolol concentration. In healthy subjects with CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer phenotype, coadministration of quinidine 100 mg and immediate release metoprolol 200 mg tripled the concentration of S-metoprolol and doubled the metoprolol elimination half-life. In four patients with cardiovascular disease, coadministration of propafenone 150 mg t.i.d. with immediate release metoprolol 50 mg t.i.d. resulted in two-to five-fold increases in the steady-state concentration of metoprolol. These increases in plasma concentration would decrease the cardioselectivity of metoprolol.

7.3 Digitalis, Clonidine, and Calcium Channel Blockers

Digitalis glycosides, clonidine, diltiazem and verapamil slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use with beta-blockers can increase the risk of bradycardia.

If clonidine and a beta-blocker, such as metoprolol are coadministered, withdraw the beta-blocker several days before the gradual withdrawal of clonidine because beta-blockers may exacerbate the rebound hypertension that can follow the withdrawal of clonidine. If replacing clonidine by beta-blocker therapy, delay the introduction of beta-blockers for several days after clonidine administration has stopped [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)].


Please review the manufacturer’s complete drug information available from the FDA at www.fda.gov
Permanent Link: https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=71c1d33e-be6f-6d59-b715-45075445891a

Use in Specific Populations

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C

Metoprolol tartrate has been shown to increase post-implantation loss and decrease neonatal survival in rats at doses up to 22 times, on a mg/m2 basis, the daily dose of 200 mg in a 60 kg patient. Distribution studies in mice confirm exposure of the fetus when metoprolol tartrate is administered to the pregnant animal. These studies have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or teratogenicity. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, use this drug during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

Metoprolol is excreted in breast milk in very small quantities. An infant consuming 1 liter of breast milk daily would receive a dose of less than 1 mg of the drug. Consider possible infant exposure when metoprolol succinate extended-release is administered to a nursing woman.

8.4 Pediatric Use

One hundred forty-four hypertensive pediatric patients aged 6 to 16 years were randomized to placebo or to one of three dose levels of metoprolol succinate extended-release (0.2, 1 or 2 mg/kg once daily) and followed for 4 weeks. The study did not meet its primary endpoint (dose response for reduction in SBP). Some pre-specified secondary endpoints demonstrated effectiveness including:

Dose-response for reduction in DBP,
1 mg/kg vs. placebo for change in SBP, and
2 mg/kg vs. placebo for change in SBP and DBP.
The mean placebo corrected reductions in SBP ranged from 3 to 6 mmHg, and DBP from 1 to 5 mmHg. Mean reduction in heart rate ranged from 5 to 7 bpm but considerably greater reductions were seen in some individuals [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].
No clinically relevant differences in the adverse event profile were observed for pediatric patients aged 6 to 16 years as compared with adult patients.
Safety and effectiveness of metoprolol succinate extended-release have not been established in patients <6 years of age.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of metoprolol succinate extended-release in hypertension did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience in hypertensive patients has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. Of the 1,990 patients with heart failure randomized to metoprolol succinate extended-release in the MERIT-HF trial, 50% (990) were 65 years of age and older and 12% (238) were 75 years of age and older. There were no notable differences in efficacy or the rate of adverse reactions between older and younger patients.

In general, use a low initial starting dose in elderly patients given their greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

8.6 Hepatic Impairment

No studies have been performed with metoprolol succinate extended-release in patients with hepatic impairment. Because metoprolol succinate extended-release is metabolized by the liver, metoprolol blood levels are likely to increase substantially with poor hepatic function. Therefore, initiate therapy at doses lower than those recommended for a given indication; and increase doses gradually in patients with impaired hepatic function.

8.7 Renal Impairment

The systemic availability and half-life of metoprolol in patients with renal failure do not differ to a clinically significant degree from those in normal subjects. No reduction in dosage is needed in patients with chronic renal failure [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Please review the manufacturer’s complete drug information available from the FDA at www.fda.gov
Permanent Link: https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=71c1d33e-be6f-6d59-b715-45075445891a

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