Metoprolol Succinate ER (Page 3 of 5)

Overdosage

Signs and Symptoms — Overdosage of metoprolol succinate extended-release may lead to severe bradycardia, hypotension, and cardiogenic shock. Clinical presentation can also include: atrioventricular block, heart failure, bronchospasm, hypoxia, impairment of consciousness/coma, nausea and vomiting.

Treatment – Consider treating the patient with intensive care. Patients with myocardial infarction or heart failure may be prone to significant hemodynamic instability. Seek consultation with a regional poison control center and a medical toxicologist as needed. Beta-blocker overdose may result in significant resistance to resuscitation with adrenergic agents, including beta-agonists. On the basis of the pharmacologic actions of metoprolol, employ the following measures.

There is very limited experience with the use of hemodialysis to remove metoprolol, however metoprolol is not highly protein bound.

Bradycardia: Administer intravenous atropine; repeat to effect. If the response is inadequate, consider intravenous isoproterenol or other positive chronotropic agents. Evaluate the need for transvenous pacemaker insertion.

Hypotension: Treat underlying bradycardia. Consider intravenous vasopressor infusion, such as dopamine or norepinephrine.

Bronchospasm: Administer a beta2-agonist, including albuterol inhalation, or an oral theophylline derivative.

Cardiac Failure: Administer diuretics or digoxin for congestive heart failure. For cardiogenic shock, consider IV dobutamine, isoproterenol, or glucagon.


Please review the manufacturer’s complete drug information available from the FDA at www.fda.gov
Permanent Link: https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=71c1d33e-be6f-6d59-b715-45075445891a

Description

Metoprolol succinate, is a beta1-selective (cardioselective) adrenoceptor blocking agent, for oral administration, available as extended release tablets. Metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets USP, have been formulated to provide a controlled and predictable release of metoprolol for once-daily administration. The tablets comprise a multiple unit system containing metoprolol succinate in a multitude of controlled release pellets. Each pellet acts as a separate drug delivery unit and is designed to deliver metoprolol continuously over the dosage interval. The tablets contain 95 mg and 190 mg of metoprolol succinate equivalent to 100 mg and 200 mg of metoprolol tartrate, USP, respectively. Its chemical name is (±) 1-(isopropylamino)-3-[p-(2-methoxyethyl) phenoxy]-2-propanol succinate (2:1) (salt). Its structural formula is:

structure

Metoprolol succinate USP, is a white to off white powder with a molecular weight of 652.8. It is freely soluble in water and soluble in methanol.

Inactive ingredients: acetyl tributyl citrate, colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, ethyl cellulose, hydrogenated vegetable oil, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, methylene chloride, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol 6000, prosolv, sodium stearyl fumarate, talc and titanium dioxide.


Please review the manufacturer’s complete drug information available from the FDA at www.fda.gov
Permanent Link: https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=71c1d33e-be6f-6d59-b715-45075445891a

Clinical Pharmacology

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Hypertension: The mechanism of the antihypertensive effects of beta-blocking agents has not been elucidated. However, several possible mechanisms have been proposed: (1) competitive antagonism of catecholamines at peripheral (especially cardiac) adrenergic neuron sites, leading to decreased cardiac output; (2) a central effect leading to reduced sympathetic outflow to the periphery; and (3) suppression of renin activity.

Heart Failure: The precise mechanism for the beneficial effects of beta-blockers in heart failure has not been elucidated.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Clinical pharmacology studies have confirmed the beta-blocking activity of metoprolol in man, as shown by (1) reduction in heart rate and cardiac output at rest and upon exercise, (2) reduction of systolic blood pressure upon exercise, (3) inhibition of isoproterenol-induced tachycardia, and (4) reduction of reflex orthostatic tachycardia.

Metoprolol is a beta1-selective (cardioselective) adrenergic receptor blocking agent. This preferential effect is not absolute, however, and at higher plasma concentrations, metoprolol also inhibits beta2-adrenoreceptors, chiefly located in the bronchial and vascular musculature. Metoprolol has no intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, and membrane-stabilizing activity is detectable only at plasma concentrations much greater than required for beta-blockade. Animal and human experiments indicate that metoprolol slows the sinus rate and decreases AV nodal conduction.

The relative beta1-selectivity of metoprolol has been confirmed by the following: (1) In normal subjects, metoprolol is unable to reverse the beta2-mediated vasodilating effects of epinephrine. This contrasts with the effect of nonselective beta-blockers, which completely reverse the vasodilating effects of epinephrine. (2) In asthmatic patients, metoprolol reduces FEV1 and FVC significantly less than a nonselective beta-blocker, propranolol, at equivalent beta1-receptor blocking doses.

The relationship between plasma metoprolol levels and reduction in exercise heart rate is independent of the pharmaceutical formulation. Using an Emax model, the maximum effect is a 30% reduction in exercise heart rate, which is attributed to beta1-blockade. Beta1-blocking effects in the range of 30 to 80% of the maximal effect (approximately 8 to 23% reduction in exercise heart rate) correspond to metoprolol plasma concentrations from 30 to 540 nmol/L. The relative beta1-selectivity of metoprolol diminishes and blockade of beta2-adrenoceptors increases at plasma concentration above 300 nmol/L.

Although beta-adrenergic receptor blockade is useful in the treatment of angina, hypertension, and heart failure there are situations in which sympathetic stimulation is vital. In patients with severely damaged hearts, adequate ventricular function may depend on sympathetic drive. In the presence of AV block, beta-blockade may prevent the necessary facilitating effect of sympathetic activity on conduction. Beta2-adrenergic blockade results in passive bronchial constriction by interfering with endogenous adrenergic bronchodilator activity in patients subject to bronchospasm and may also interfere with exogenous bronchodilators in such patients.

In other studies, treatment with metoprolol succinate extended-release produced an improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction. Metoprolol succinate extended-release was also shown to delay the increase in left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes after 6 months of treatment.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Adults: In man, absorption of metoprolol is rapid and complete. Plasma levels following oral administration of conventional metoprolol tablets, however, approximate 50% of levels following intravenous administration, indicating about 50% first-pass metabolism. metoprolol crosses the blood-brain barrier and has been reported in the CSF in a concentration 78% of the simultaneous plasma concentration.

Plasma levels achieved are highly variable after oral administration. Only a small fraction of the drug (about 12%) is bound to human serum albumin. Metoprolol is a racemic mixture of R- and S- enantiomers, and is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6. When administered orally, it exhibits stereoselective metabolism that is dependent on oxidation phenotype. Elimination is mainly by biotransformation in the liver, and the plasma half-life ranges from approximately 3 to 7 hours. Less than 5% of an oral dose of metoprolol is recovered unchanged in the urine; the rest is excreted by the kidneys as metabolites that appear to have no beta-blocking activity.

Following intravenous administration of metoprolol, the urinary recovery of unchanged drug is approximately 10%. The systemic availability and half-life of metoprolol in patients with renal failure do not differ to a clinically significant degree from those in normal subjects. Consequently, no reduction in metoprolol succinate dosage is usually needed in patients with chronic renal failure.

Metoprolol is metabolized predominantly by CYP2D6, an enzyme that is absent in about 8% of Caucasians (poor metabolizers) and about 2% of most other populations. CYP2D6 can be inhibited by a number of drugs. Poor metabolizers and extensive metabolizers who concomitantly use CYP2D6 inhibiting drugs will have increased (several-fold) metoprolol blood levels, decreasing metoprolol’s cardioselectivity [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].

In comparison to conventional metoprolol, the plasma metoprolol levels following administration of metoprolol succinate extended-release are characterized by lower peaks, longer time to peak and significantly lower peak to trough variation. The peak plasma levels following once-daily administration of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets average one-fourth to one-half the peak plasma levels obtained following a corresponding dose of conventional metoprolol, administered once daily or in divided doses. At steady state the average bioavailability of metoprolol following administration of metoprolol succinate extended-release, across the dosage range of 50 to 400 mg once daily, was 77% relative to the corresponding single or divided doses of conventional metoprolol. Nevertheless, over the 24-hour dosing interval, β1-blockade is comparable and dose-related [see Clinical Pharmacology (12)]. The bioavailability of metoprolol shows a dose-related, although not directly proportional, increase with dose and is not significantly affected by food following metoprolol succinate extended-release administration.

Pediatrics: The pharmacokinetic profile of metoprolol succinate extended-release was studied in 120 pediatric hypertensive patients (6 to 17 years of age) receiving doses ranging from 12.5 to 200 mg once daily. The pharmacokinetics of metoprolol were similar to those described previously in adults. Age, gender, race, and ideal body weight had no significant effects on metoprolol pharmacokinetics. Metoprolol apparent oral clearance (CL/F) increased linearly with body weight. Metoprolol pharmacokinetics have not been investigated in patients < 6 years of age.


Please review the manufacturer’s complete drug information available from the FDA at www.fda.gov
Permanent Link: https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=71c1d33e-be6f-6d59-b715-45075445891a

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