Metoprolol Tartrate (Page 2 of 6)

Special Populations

Geriatric Patients

The geriatric population may show slightly higher plasma concentrations of metoprolol as a combined result of a decreased metabolism of the drug in elderly population and a decreased hepatic blood flow. However, this increase is not clinically significant or therapeutically relevant.

Renal Impairment

The systemic availability and half-life of metoprolol in patients with renal failure do not differ to a clinically significant degree from those in normal subjects.

Hepatic Impairment

Since the drug is primarily eliminated by hepatic metabolism, hepatic impairment may impact the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol. The elimination half-life of metoprolol is considerably prolonged, depending on severity (up to 7.2 h).

Clinical Studies

Hypertension

In controlled clinical studies, metoprolol has been shown to be an effective antihypertensive agent when used alone or as concomitant therapy with thiazide-type diuretics, at dosages of 100 mg to 450 mg daily. In controlled, comparative, clinical studies, metoprolol has been shown to be as effective an antihypertensive agent as propranolol, methyldopa, and thiazide-type diuretics, to be equally effective in supine and standing positions.

Angina Pectoris

In controlled clinical trials, metoprolol, administered 2 or 4 times daily, has been shown to be an effective antianginal agent, reducing the number of angina attacks and increasing exercise tolerance. The dosage used in these studies ranged from 100 mg to 400 mg daily. A controlled, comparative, clinical trial showed that metoprolol was indistinguishable from propranolol in the treatment of angina pectoris.

Myocardial Infarction

In a large (1,395 patients randomized), double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, metoprolol was shown to reduce 3 month mortality by 36% in patients with suspected or definite myocardial infarction.

Patients were randomized and treated as soon as possible after their arrival in the hospital, once their clinical condition had stabilized and their hemodynamic status had been carefully evaluated. Subjects were ineligible if they had hypotension, bradycardia, peripheral signs of shock, and/or more than minimal basal rales as signs of congestive heart failure. Initial treatment consisted of intravenous followed by oral administration of metoprolol or placebo, given in a coronary care or comparable unit. Oral maintenance therapy with metoprolol or placebo was then continued for 3 months. After this double-blind period, all patients were given metoprolol and followed up to one year.

The median delay from the onset of symptoms to the initiation of therapy was 8 hours in both the metoprolol and placebo treatment groups. Among patients treated with metoprolol, there were comparable reductions in 3 month mortality for those treated early (≤ 8 hours) and those in whom treatment was started later. Significant reductions in the incidence of ventricular fibrillation and in chest pain following initial intravenous therapy were also observed with metoprolol and were independent of the interval between onset of symptoms and initiation of therapy.

In this study, patients treated with metoprolol received the drug both very early (intravenously) and during a subsequent 3 month period, while placebo patients received no beta-blocker treatment for this period. The study thus was able to show a benefit from the overall metoprolol regimen but cannot separate the benefit of very early intravenous treatment from the benefit of later beta-blocker therapy. Nonetheless, because the overall regimen showed a clear beneficial effect on survival without evidence of an early adverse effect on survival, one acceptable dosage regimen is the precise regimen used in the trial. Because the specific benefit of very early treatment remains to be defined however, it is also reasonable to administer the drug orally to patients at a later time as is recommended for certain other beta-blockers.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Hypertension

Metoprolol tartrate tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension. They may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.

Angina Pectoris

Metoprolol tartrate tablets are indicated in the long-term treatment of angina pectoris.

Myocardial Infarction

Metoprolol tartrate tablets are indicated in the treatment of hemodynamically stable patients with definite or suspected acute myocardial infarction to reduce cardiovascular mortality when used alone or in conjunction with intravenous metoprolol. Oral metoprolol tartrate tablets therapy can be initiated after intravenous metoprolol therapy or, alternatively, oral treatment can begin within 3 to 10 days of the acute event (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CONTRAINDICATIONS, and WARNINGS).

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Hypertension and Angina

Metoprolol tartrate tablets are contraindicated in sinus bradycardia, heart block greater than first degree, cardiogenic shock, and overt cardiac failure (see WARNINGS).

Hypersensitivity to metoprolol and related derivatives, or to any of the excipients; hypersensitivity to other beta-blockers (cross-sensitivity between beta-blockers can occur).

  • Sick-sinus syndrome.
  • Severe peripheral arterial circulatory disorders.

Myocardial Infarction

Metoprolol is contraindicated in patients with a heart rate < 45 beats/min; second- and third-degree heart block; significant first-degree heart block (P-R interval ≥ 0.24 sec); systolic blood pressure < 100 mmHg; or moderate to severe cardiac failure (see WARNINGS).

WARNINGS

Heart Failure

Beta-blockers, like metoprolol, can cause depression of myocardial contractility and may precipitate heart failure and cardiogenic shock. If signs or symptoms of heart failure develop, treat the patient according to recommended guidelines. It may be necessary to lower the dose of metoprolol or to discontinue it.

Ischemic Heart Disease

Do not abruptly discontinue metoprolol therapy in patients with coronary artery disease. Severe exacerbation of angina, myocardial infarction and ventricular arrhythmias have been reported in patients with coronary artery disease following the abrupt discontinuation of therapy with beta-blockers. When discontinuing chronically administered metoprolol, particularly in patients with coronary artery disease, the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of 1 to 2 weeks and the patient should be carefully monitored. If angina markedly worsens or acute coronary insufficiency develops, metoprolol administration should be reinstated promptly, at least temporarily, and other measures appropriate for the management of unstable angina should be taken. Patients should be warned against interruption or discontinuation of therapy without the physician’s advice. Because coronary artery disease is common and may be unrecognized, it may be prudent not to discontinue metoprolol therapy abruptly even in patients treated only for hypertension.

Use During Major Surgery

Chronically administered beta-blocking therapy should not be routinely withdrawn prior to major surgery; however, the impaired ability of the heart to respond to reflex adrenergic stimuli may augment the risks of general anesthesia and surgical procedures.

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