Metoprolol Tartrate (Page 4 of 6)
Pregnancy Category C
Upon confirming the diagnosis of pregnancy, women should immediately inform their doctor. Metoprolol has been shown to increase postimplantation loss and decrease neonatal survival in rats at doses up to 11 times the maximum daily human dose of 450 mg, when based on surface area. Distribution studies in mice confirm exposure of the fetus when metoprolol is administered to the pregnant animal. These limited animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to teratogenicity (see PRECAUTIONS: Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility).
There are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. The amount of data on the use of metoprolol in pregnant women is limited. The risk to the fetus/mother is unknown. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Metoprolol is excreted in breast milk in a very small quantity. An infant consuming one liter of breast milk daily would receive a dose of less than 1 mg of the drug.
The effects of metoprolol on the fertility of humans have not been studied.
Metoprolol showed effects on spermatogenesis in male rats at a therapeutic dose level, but had no effect on rates of conception at higher doses in animal fertility studies (see PRECAUTIONS: Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility).
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Clinical trials of metoprolol in hypertension did not include sufficient numbers of elderly patients to determine whether patients over 65 years of age differ from younger subjects in their response to metoprolol. Other reported clinical experience in elderly hypertensive patients has not identified any difference in response from younger patients.
In worldwide clinical trials of metoprolol in myocardial infarction, where approximately 478 patients were over 65 years of age (0 over 75 years of age), no age related differences in safety and effectiveness were found. Other reported clinical experience in myocardial infarction has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger patients. However, greater sensitivity of some elderly individuals taking metoprolol cannot be categorically ruled out. Therefore, in general, it is recommended that dosing proceed with caution in this population.
Hypertension and Angina
Most adverse effects have been mild and transient.
Central Nervous System
Tiredness and dizziness have occurred in about 10 of 100 patients. Depression has been reported in about 5 of 100 patients. Mental confusion and short-term memory loss have been reported. Headache, nightmares, and insomnia have also been reported.
Shortness of breath and bradycardia have occurred in approximately 3 of 100 patients. Cold extremities; arterial insufficiency, usually of the Raynaud type; palpitations; congestive heart failure; peripheral edema; and hypotension have been reported in about 1 of 100 patients. Gangrene in patients with preexisting severe peripheral circulatory disorders has also been reported very rarely (see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS, and PRECAUTIONS).
Wheezing (bronchospasm) and dyspnea have been reported in about 1 of 100 patients (see WARNINGS). Rhinitis has also been reported.
Diarrhea has occurred in about 5 of 100 patients. Nausea, dry mouth, gastric pain, constipation, flatulence, and heartburn have been reported in about 1 of 100 patients. Vomiting was a common occurrence. Post-marketing experience reveals very rare reports of hepatitis, jaundice and nonspecific hepatic dysfunction. Isolated cases of transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactic dehydrogenase elevations have also been reported.
Pruritus or rash have occurred in about 5 of 100 patients. Very rarely, photosensitivity and worsening of psoriasis have been reported.
Peyronie’s disease has been reported in fewer than 1 of 100,000 patients. Musculoskeletal pain, blurred vision, and tinnitus have also been reported.
There have been rare reports of reversible alopecia, agranulocytosis, and dry eyes. Discontinuation of the drug should be considered if any such reaction is not otherwise explicable. There have been very rare reports of weight gain, arthritis, and retroperitoneal fibrosis (relationship to metoprolol has not been definitely established).
The oculomucocutaneous syndrome associated with the beta-blocker practolol has not been reported with metoprolol.
Central Nervous System
Tiredness has been reported in about 1 of 100 patients. Vertigo, sleep disturbances, hallucinations, headache, dizziness, visual disturbances, confusion, and reduced libido have also been reported, but a drug relationship is not clear.
In the randomized comparison of metoprolol and placebo described in the CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY section, the following adverse reactions were reported:
Metoprolol Tartrate Tablets
Hypotension (systolic BP < 90 mmHg)
Bradycardia (heart rate < 40 beats/min)
Second- or third-degree heart block
First-degree heart block (P-R ≥ 0.26 sec)
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