Metoprolol Tartrate (Page 2 of 4)
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Metoprolol tartrate tablets, USP are indicated for the treatment of hypertension. They may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.
Metoprolol tartrate tablets, USP are indicated in the long-term treatment of angina pectoris.
Metoprolol tartrate tablets, USP are indicated in the treatment of hemodynamically stable patients with definite or suspected acute myocardial infarction to reduce cardiovascular mortality when used alone or in conjunction with intravenous metoprolol. Oral metoprolol tartrate tablets, USP therapy can be initiated after intravenous metoprolol therapy or, alternatively, oral treatment can begin within 3 to 10 days of the acute event (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CONTRAINDICATIONS, and WARNINGS).
Hypertension and Angina
Metoprolol tartrate tablets are contraindicated in sinus bradycardia, heart block greater than first degree, cardiogenic shock, and overt cardiac failure (see WARNINGS).
Hypersensitivity to metoprolol and related derivatives, or to any of the excipients; hypersensitivity to other beta-blockers (cross sensitivity between beta-blockers can occur).
Sick-sinus Syndrome. Severe peripheral arterial circulatory disorders.
Metoprolol tartrate tablets are contraindicated in patients with a heart rate < 45 beats/min; second- and third-degree heart block; significant first-degree heart block (P-R interval ≥ 0.24 sec); systolic blood pressure < 100 mmHg; or moderate-to-severe cardiac failure (see WARNINGS).
Beta blockers, like metoprolol, can cause depression of myocardial contractility and may precipitate heart failure and cardiogenic shock. If signs or symptoms of heart failure develop, treat the patient according to recommended guidelines. It may be necessary to lower the dose of metoprolol or to discontinue it.
Ischemic Heart Disease
Do not abruptly discontinue metoprolol therapy in patients with coronary artery disease. Severe exacerbation of angina, myocardial infarction and ventricular arrhythmias have been reported in patients with coronary artery disease following the abrupt discontinuation of therapy with beta-blockers. When discontinuing chronically administered metoprolol, particularly in patients with coronary artery disease, the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of 1 to 2 weeks and the patient should be carefully monitored. If angina markedly worsens or acute coronary insufficiency develops, metoprolol administration should be reinstated promptly, at least temporarily, and other measures appropriate for the management of unstable angina should be taken. Patients should be warned against interruption or discontinuation of therapy without the physician’s advice. Because coronary artery disease is common and may be unrecognized, it may be prudent not to discontinue metoprolol therapy abruptly even in patients treated only for hypertension.
Use During Major Surgery
Chronically administered beta-blocking therapy should not be routinely withdrawn prior to major surgery; however, the impaired ability of the heart to respond to reflex adrenergic stimuli may augment the risks of general anesthesia and surgical procedures.
Bradycardia, including sinus pause, heart block, and cardiac arrest have occurred with the use of metoprolol. Patients with first-degree atrioventricular block, sinus node dysfunction, or conduction disorders may be at increased risk. Monitor heart rate and rhythm in patients receiving metoprolol. If severe bradycardia develops, reduce or stop metoprolol.
Exacerbation of Bronchospastic Disease
Patients with bronchospastic disease, should, in general, not receive beta blockers, including metoprolol. Because of its relative beta1 selectivity, however, metoprolol may be used in patients with bronchospastic disease who do not respond to, or cannot tolerate, other antihypertensive treatment. Because beta1 selectivity is not absolute use the lowest possible dose of metoprolol and consider administering metoprolol in smaller doses three times daily, instead of larger doses two times daily, to avoid the higher plasma levels associated with the longer dosing interval (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Bronchodilators, including beta2 agonists, should be readily available or administered concomitantly.
Diabetes and Hypoglycemia
Beta-blockers may mask tachycardia occurring with hypoglycemia, but other manifestations such as dizziness and sweating may not be significantly affected.
If metoprolol is used in the setting of pheochromocytoma, it should be given in combination with an alpha blocker, and only after the alpha blocker has been initiated. Administration of beta-blockers alone in the setting of pheochromocytoma has been associated with a paradoxical increase in blood pressure due to the attenuation of beta-mediated vasodilatation in skeletal muscle.
Metoprolol may mask certain clinical signs (e.g., tachycardia) of hyperthyroidism. Avoid abrupt withdrawal of beta blockade, which might precipitate a thyroid storm.
Risk of Anaphylactic Reactions
While taking beta blockers, patients with a history of severe anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated challenge, either accidental, diagnostic, or therapeutic. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat allergic reaction.
Information for Patients
Advise patients to take metoprolol regularly and continuously, as directed, with or immediately following meals. If a dose should be missed, the patient should take only the next scheduled dose (without doubling it). Patients should not discontinue metoprolol without consulting the physician.
Advise patients (1) to avoid operating automobiles and machinery or engaging in other tasks requiring alertness until the patient’s response to therapy with metoprolol has been determined; (2) to contact the physician if any difficulty in breathing occurs; (3) to inform the physician or dentist before any type of surgery that he or she is taking metoprolol.
Catecholamine-depleting Drugs: Catecholamine-depleting drugs (e.g., reserpine) may have an additive effect when given with beta-blocking agents or monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Observe patients treated with metoprolol plus a catecholamine depletor for evidence of hypotension or marked bradycardia, which may produce vertigo, syncope, or postural hypotension. In addition, possibly significant hypertension may theoretically occur up to 14 days following discontinuation of the concomitant administration with an irreversible MAO inhibitor.
Digitalis Glycosides and Beta-blockers: Both digitalis glycosides and beta-blockers slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use can increase the risk of bradycardia. Monitor heart rate and PR interval.
Calcium Channel Blockers: Concomitant administration of a beta-adrenergic antagonist with a calcium channel blocker may produce an additive reduction in myocardial contractility because of negative chronotropic and inotropic effects.
CYP2D6 Inhibitors: Potent inhibitors of the CYP2D6 enzyme may increase the plasma concentration of metoprolol which would mimic the pharmacokinetics of CYP2D6 poor metabolizer (see Pharmacokinetics section). Increase in plasma concentrations of metoprolol would decrease the cardioselectivity of metoprolol. Known clinically significant potent inhibitors of CYP2D6 are antidepressants such as fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, bupropion, clomipramine, and desipramine; antipsychotics such as chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, haloperidol, and thioridazine; antiarrhythmics such as quinidine or propafenone; antiretrovirals such as ritonavir; antihistamines such as diphenhydramine; antimalarials such as hydroxychloroquine or quinidine; antifungals such as terbinafine.
Hydralazine: Concomitant administration of hydralazine may inhibit presystemic metabolism of metoprolol leading to increased concentrations of metoprolol.
Alpha-adrenergic Agents: Antihypertensive effect of alpha-adrenergic blockers such as guanethidine, betanidine, reserpine, alpha-methyldopa or clonidine may be potentiated by beta-blockers including metoprolol. Beta-adrenergic blockers may also potentiate the postural hypotensive effect of the first dose of prazosin, probably by preventing reflex tachycardia. On the contrary, beta adrenergic blockers may also potentiate the hypertensive response to withdrawal of clonidine in patients receiving concomitant clonidine and beta-adrenergic blocker. If a patient is treated with clonidine and metoprolol concurrently, and clonidine treatment is to be discontinued, stop metoprolol several days before clonidine is withdrawn. Rebound hypertension that can follow withdrawal of clonidine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent beta-blocker treatment.
Ergot Alkaloid: Concomitant administration with beta-blockers may enhance the vasoconstrictive action of ergot alkaloids.
Dipyridamole: In general, administration of a beta-blocker should be withheld before dipyridamole testing, with careful monitoring of heart rate following the dipyridamole injection.
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