Metoprolol Tartrate (Page 3 of 4)

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Hypertension and Angina

Most adverse effects have been mild and transient.


Central Nervous System: Tiredness and dizziness have occurred in about 10 of 100 patients. Depression has been reported in about 5 of 100 patients. Mental confusion and short-term memory loss have been reported. Headache, nightmares, and insomnia have also been reported.


Cardiovascular: Shortness of breath and bradycardia have occurred in approximately 3 of 100 patients. Cold extremities; arterial insufficiency, usually of the Raynaud type; palpitations; congestive heart failure; peripheral edema; and hypotension have been reported in about 1 of 100 patients. Gangrene in patients with pre-existing severe peripheral circulatory disorders has also been reported very rarely. see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS, and PRECAUTIONS.)

Respiratory: Wheezing (bronchospasm) and dyspnea have been reported in about 1 of 100 patients (see WARNINGS). Rhinitis has also been reported.

Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea has occurred in about 5 of 100 patients. Nausea, dry mouth, gastric pain, constipation, flatulence, and heartburn have been reported in about 1 of 100 patients. Vomiting was a common occurrence. Post-marketing experience reveals very rare reports of hepatitis, jaundice and non-specific hepatic dysfunction. Isolated cases of transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and lactic dehydrogenase elevations have also been reported.

Hypersensitive Reactions: Pruritus or rash have occurred in about 5 of 100 patients. Very rarely, photosensitivity and worsening of psoriasis has been reported.


Miscellaneous: Peyronie’s disease has been reported in fewer than 1 of 100,000 patients. Musculoskeletal pain, blurred vision, and tinnitus have also been reported.

There have been rare reports of reversible alopecia, agranulocytosis, and dry eyes. Discontinuation of the drug should be considered if any such reaction is not otherwise explicable. There have been very rare reports of weight gain, arthritis, and retroperitoneal fibrosis (relationship to metoprolol tartrate has not been definitely established).

The oculomucocutaneous syndrome associated with the beta blocker practolol has not been reported with metoprolol tartrate.


Myocardial Infarction
Central Nervous System: Tiredness has been reported in about 1 of 100 patients. Vertigo, sleep disturbances, hallucinations, headache, dizziness, visual disturbances, confusion, and reduced libido have also been reported, but a drug relationship is not clear.

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Cardiovascular: In the randomized comparison of metoprolol and placebo described in the CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY section, the following adverse reactions were reported:

Table
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Respiratory: Dyspnea of pulmonary origin has been reported in fewer than 1 of 100 patients.


Gastrointestinal: Nausea and abdominal pain have been reported in fewer than 1 of 100 patients.


Dermatologic: Rash and worsened psoriasis have been reported, but a drug relationship is not clear.


Miscellaneous: Unstable diabetes and claudication have been reported, but a drug relationship is not clear.


Potential Adverse Reactions
A variety of adverse reactions not listed above have been reported with other beta-adrenergic blocking agents and should be considered potential adverse reactions to metoprolol tartrate.


Central Nervous System: Reversible mental depression progressing to catatonia; an acute reversible syndrome characterized by disorientation for time and place, short-term memory loss, emotional lability, slightly clouded sensorium, and decreased performance on neuropsychometrics.


Cardiovascular: Intensification of AV block (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).


Hematologic: Agranulocytosis, nonthrombocytopenic purpura, thrombocytopenic purpura.


Hypersensitive Reactions: Fever combined with aching and sore throat, laryngospasm, and respiratory distress.


Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been reported during postapproval use of metoprolol tartrate: confusional state, an increase in blood triglycerides and a decrease in High Density Lipoprotein (HDL). Because these reports are from a population of uncertain size and are subject to confounding factors, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency.

OVERDOSAGE

Acute Toxicity
Several cases of overdosage have been reported, some leading to death. Oral LD50’s (mg/kg): mice, 1158 to 2460; rats, 3090 to 4670.

Signs and Symptoms
Potential signs and symptoms associated with overdosage with metoprolol are bradycardia, hypotension, bronchospasm, myocardial infarction, cardiac failure and death.

Management
There is no specific antidote. In general, patients with acute or recent myocardial infarction may be more hemodynamically unstable than other patients and should be treated accordingly (see WARNINGS, Myocardial Infarction). On the basis of the pharmacologic actions of metoprolol tartrate, the following general measures should be employed:

Elimination of the Drug: Gastric lavage should be performed.

Other clinical manifestations of overdose should be managed symptomatically based on modern methods of intensive care.
Hypotension: A vasopressor should be administered, e.g., levarterenol or dopamine.
Bronchospasm: A beta -stimulating agent and/or a theophylline derivative should be 2 administered.
Cardiac Failure: A digitalis glycoside and diuretic should be administered. In shock resulting from inadequate cardiac contractility, administration of dobutamine, isoproterenol, or glucagon may be considered.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Hypertension

The dosage of metoprolol tartrate tablets should be individualized. Metoprolol tartrate tablets should be taken with or immediately following meals. The usual initial dosage of Metoprolol tartrate tablets is 100 mg daily in single or divided doses, whether used alone or added to a diuretic. The dosage may be increased at weekly (or longer) intervals until optimum blood pressure reduction is achieved. In general, the maximum effect of any given dosage level will be apparent after 1 week of therapy. The effective dosage range of Metoprolol tartrate tablets is 100 to 450 mg per day. Dosages above 450 mg per day have not been studied. While once-daily dosing is effective and can maintain a reduction in blood pressure throughout the day, lower doses (especially 100 mg) may not maintain a full effect at the end of the 24-hour period, and larger or more frequent daily doses may be required. This can be evaluated by measuring blood pressure near the end of the dosing interval to determine whether satisfactory control is being maintained throughout the day. Beta selectivity diminishes as the dose of metoprolol is increased.

Angina Pectoris

The dosage of metoprolol tartrate tablets should be individualized. Metoprolol tartrate tablets should be taken with or immediately following meals. The usual initial dosage of Metoprolol tartrate tablets is 100 mg daily, given in two divided doses. The dosage may be gradually increased at weekly intervals until optimum clinical response has been obtained or there is pronounced slowing of the heart rate. The effective dosage range of Metoprolol tartrate tablets is 100 to 400 mg per day. Dosages above 400 mg per day have not been studied. If treatment is to be discontinued, the dosage should be reduced gradually over a period of 1 to 2 weeks (see WARNINGS).

Myocardial Infarction

Early Treatment: During the early phase of definite or suspected acute myocardial infarction, treatment with metoprolol tartrate can be initiated as soon as possible after the patient’s arrival

in the hospital. Such treatment should be initiated in a coronary care or similar unit immediately after the patient’s hemodynamic condition has stabilized. Treatment in this early phase should begin with the intravenous administration of three bolus injections of 5 mg of metoprolol tartrate each; the injections should be given at approximately 2-minute intervals. During the intravenous administration of metoprolol, blood pressure, heart rate,and electrocardiogram should be carefully monitored.In patients who tolerate the full intravenous dose (15 mg), metoprolol tartrate tablets, 50 mg every 6 hours, should be initiated 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose and continued for 48 hours. Thereafter, patients should receive a maintenance dosage of 100 mg twice daily (see Late Treatment below).

Patients who appear not to tolerate the full intravenous dose should be started on metoprolol tartrate tablets either 25 mg or 50 mg every 6 hours (depending on the degree of intolerance)

15 minutes after the last intravenous dose or as soon as their clinical condition allows. In patients with severe intolerance, treatment with metoprolol should be discontinued (see WARNINGS).

Late Treatment: Patients with contraindications to treatment during the early phase of suspected or definite myocardial infarction, patients who appear not to tolerate the full early treatment, and

patients in whom the physician wishes to delay therapy for any other reason should be started on metoprolol tartrate tablets, 100 mg twice daily, as soon as their clinical condition allows. Therapy should be continued for at least 3 months. Although the efficacy of metoprolol beyond 3 months has not been conclusively established, data from studies with other beta blockers suggest that treatment should be continued for 1 to 3 years.

Special populations

Pediatric patients: No pediatric studies have been performed. The safety and efficacy of Metoprolol Tartrate in pediatric patients have not been established.

Renal impairment: No dose adjustment of Metoprolol Tartrate is required in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic impairment: Metoprolol Tartrate blood levels are likely to increase substantially in patients with hepatic impairment. Therefore, Metoprolol Tartrate should be initiated at low doses with cautious gradual dose titration according to clinical response.

Geriatric patients (>65 years): In general, use a low initial starting dose in elderly patients given their greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Method of administration: For oral treatment, the tablets should be swallowed un-chewed with a glass of water. Metoprolol Tartrate should always be taken in standardized relation with meals. If the physician asks the patient to take Metoprolol Tartrate either before breakfast or with breakfast, then the patient should continue taking Metoprolol Tartrate with the same schedule during the course of therapy.

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