MEXILETINE HCL- mexiletine hydrochloride capsule
Watson Laboratories, Inc.
Mexiletine hydrochloride is an orally active antiarrhythmic agent available as 150 mg, 200 mg and 250 mg capsules. 100 mg of mexiletine hydrochloride is equivalent to 83.31 mg of mexiletine base. It is a white to off-white crystalline powder with slightly bitter taste, freely soluble in water and in alcohol. Mexiletine hydrochloride has a pKa of 9.2.
Chemically, mexiletine hydrochloride is (±)-1-methyl-2-(2, 6-xylyloxy) ethylamine hydrochloride. Its molecular formula is C11 H17 NO•HCI and molecular weight is 215.72.
Following is its structural formula:
Each capsule, for oral administration contains 150 mg, 200 mg, or 250 mg mexiletine hydrochloride. In addition, each capsule contains the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, corn starch, D&C Red No. 28, D&C Yellow No. 10, FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Red No. 40, gelatin, magnesium stearate, pregelatinized starch, sodium lauryl sulfate, and titanium dioxide. Mexiletine hydrochloride capsules 150 mg also contain black iron oxide, red iron oxide, and yellow iron oxide. Mexiletine hydrochloride capsules 250 mg also contain FD&C Green No. 3.
Mechanism of Action: Mexiletine hydrochloride is a local anesthetic, antiarrhythmic agent, structurally similar to lidocaine, but orally active. In animal studies, mexiletine has been shown to be effective in the suppression of induced ventricular arrhythmias, including those induced by glycoside toxicity and coronary artery ligation. Mexiletine, like lidocaine, inhibits the inward sodium current, thus reducing the rate of rise of the action potential, Phase 0. Mexiletine decreased the effective refractory period (ERP) in Purkinje fibers. The decrease in ERP was of lesser magnitude than the decrease in action potential duration (APD), with a resulting increase in the ERP/APD ratio.
Electrophysiology in Man: Mexiletine is a Class 1B antiarrhythmic compound with electrophysiologic properties in man similar to those of lidocaine, but dissimilar from quinidine, procainamide, and disopyramide.
In patients with normal conduction systems, mexiletine has a minimal effect on cardiac impulse generation and propagation. In clinical trials, no development of second-degree or third-degree AV block was observed. Mexiletine did not prolong ventricular depolarization (QRS duration) or repolarization (QT intervals) as measured by electrocardiography. Theoretically, therefore, mexiletine may be useful in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias associated with a prolonged QT interval.
In patients with pre-existing conduction defects, depression of the sinus rate, prolongation of sinus node recovery time, decreased conduction velocity and increased effective refractory period of the intraventricular conduction system have occasionally been observed.
The antiarrhythmic effect of mexiletine has been established in controlled comparative trials against placebo, quinidine, procainamide, and disopyramide. Mexiletine hydrochloride, at doses of 200 to 400 mg q8h, produced a significant reduction of ventricular premature beats, paired beats, and episodes of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia compared to placebo and was similar in effectiveness to the active agents. Among all patients entered into the studies, about 30% in each treatment group had a 70% or greater reduction in PVC count and about 40% failed to complete the 3 month studies because of adverse effects. Follow-up of patients from the controlled trials has demonstrated continued effectiveness of mexiletine in long-term use.
Hemodynamics: Hemodynamic studies in a limited number of patients, with normal or abnormal myocardial function, following oral administration of mexiletine hydrochloride, have shown small, usually not statistically significant, decreases in cardiac output and increases in systemic vascular resistance, but no significant negative inotropic effect. Blood pressure and pulse rate remain essentially unchanged. Mild depression of myocardial function, similar to that produced by lidocaine, has occasionally been observed following intravenous mexiletine hydrochloride therapy in patients with cardiac disease.
Pharmacokinetics: Mexiletine is well absorbed (~90%) from the gastrointestinal tract. Unlike lidocaine, its first-pass metabolism is low. Peak blood levels are reached in two to three hours. In normal subjects, the plasma elimination half-life of mexiletine is approximately 10 to 12 hours. It is 50 to 60% bound to plasma protein, with a volume of distribution of 5 to 7 liters/kg. Mexiletine is mainly metabolized in the liver, the primary pathway being CYP2D6 metabolism, although it is also a substrate for CYP1A2. With involvement of CYP2D6, there can be either poor or extensive metabolizer phenotypes. Since approximately 90% of mexiletine is metabolized in the liver into inactive metabolites, pathological changes in the liver can restrict hepatic clearance of mexiletine and its metabolites. The metabolic degradation proceeds via various pathways including aromatic and aliphatic hydroxylation, dealkylation, deamination and N-oxidation. Several of the resulting metabolites are submitted to further conjugation with glucuronic acid (phase II metabolism); among these are the major metabolites p-hydroxymexiletine, hydroxy-methylmexiletine and N-hydroxy-mexiletine. Approximately 10% is excreted unchanged by the kidney. While urinary pH does not normally have much influence on elimination, marked changes in urinary pH influence the rate of excretion: acidification accelerates excretion, while alkalinization retards it. Several metabolites of mexiletine have shown minimal antiarrhythmic activity in animal models. The most active is the minor metabolite N-methylmexiletine, which is less than 20% as potent as mexiletine. The urinary excretion of N-methylmexiletine in man is less than 0.5%. Thus the therapeutic activity of mexiletine is due to the parent compound. Hepatic impairment prolongs the elimination half-life of mexiletine. In eight patients with moderate to severe liver disease, the mean half-life was approximately 25 hours.
Consistent with the limited renal elimination of mexiletine, little change in the half-life has been detected in patients with reduced renal function. In eight patients with creatinine clearance less than 10 ml/min, the mean plasma elimination half-life was 15.7 hours; in seven patients with creatinine clearance between 11 to 40 ml/min, the mean half-life was 13.4 hours.
The absorption rate of mexiletine is reduced in clinical situations such as acute myocardial infarction in which gastric emptying time is increased. Narcotics, atropine, and magnesium-aluminum hydroxide have also been reported to slow the absorption of mexiletine. Metoclopramide has been reported to accelerate absorption.
Mexiletine plasma levels of at least 0.5 mcg/ml are generally required for therapeutic response. An increase in the frequency of central nervous system adverse effects has been observed when plasma levels exceed 2 mcg/ml. Thus the therapeutic range is approximately 0.5 to 2 mcg/ml. Plasma levels within the therapeutic range can be attained with either three times daily or twice daily dosing but peak to trough differences are greater with the latter regimen, creating the possibility of adverse effects at peak and arrhythmic escape at trough. Nevertheless, some patients may be transferred successfully to the twice daily regimen (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Mexiletine HCl Indications and Usage
Mexiletine Hydrochloride Capsules are indicated for the treatment of documented ventricular arrhythmias, such as sustained ventricular tachycardia, that, in the judgement of the physician, are life-threatening. Because of the proarrhythmic effects of mexiletine, its use with lesser arrhythmias is generally not recommended. Treatment of patients with asymptomatic ventricular premature contractions should be avoided.
Initiation of mexiletine treatment, as with other antiarrhythmic agents used to treat life-threatening arrhythmias, should be carried out in the hospital.
Antiarrhythmic drugs have not been shown to enhance survival in patients with ventricular arrhythmias.
Mexiletine hydrochloride is contraindicated in the presence of cardiogenic shock or pre-existing second- or third-degree AV block (if no pacemaker is present).
|Mortality: In the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute’s Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST), a long-term, multicentered, randomized, double-blind study in patients with asymptomatic non-life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias who had a myocardial infarction more than six days but less than two years previously, an excessive mortality or non-fatal cardiac arrest rate (7.7%) was seen in patients treated with encainide or flecainide compared with that seen in patients assigned to carefully matched placebo-treated groups (3.0%). The average duration of treatment with encainide or flecainide in this study was ten months.|
|The applicability of the CAST results to other populations (e.g. those without recent myocardial infarction) is uncertain. Considering the known proarrhythmic properties of mexiletine and the lack of evidence of improved survival for any antiarrhythmic drug in patients without life-threatening arrhythmias, the use of mexiletine as well as other antiarrhythmic agents should be reversed for patients with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia.|
Acute Liver Injury: In post-marketing experience abnormal liver function tests have been reported, some in the first few weeks of therapy with mexiletine hydrochloride. Most of these have been observed in the setting of congestive heart failure or ischemia and their relationship to mexiletine has not been established.
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