MIDAZOLAM HYDROCHLORIDE- midazolam hydrochloride injection
Wockhardt USA LLC.
Adults and Pediatrics: Intravenous midazolam hydrochloride has been associated with respiratory depression and respiratory arrest, especially when used for sedation in noncritical care settings. In some cases, where this was not recognized promptly and treated effectively, death or hypoxic encephalopathy has resulted. Intravenous midazolam hydrochloride should be used only in hospital or ambulatory care settings, including physicians’ and dental offices, that provide for continuous monitoring of respiratory and cardiac function, e.g., pulse oximetry. Immediate availability of resuscitative drugs and age- and size-appropriate equipment for bag/valve/mask ventilation and intubation, and personnel trained in their use and skilled in airway management should be assured (see WARNINGS). For deeply sedated pediatric patients, a dedicated individual, other than the practitioner performing the procedure, should monitor the patient throughout the procedure.
Risks From Concomitant Use With Opioids
Concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation (see WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS/Drug Interactions).
Individualization of Dosage
Midazolam hydrochloride must never be used without individualization of dosage. The initial intravenous dose for sedation in adult patients may be as little as 1 mg, but should not exceed 2.5 mg in a normal healthy adult. Lower doses are necessary for older (over 60 years) or debilitated patients and in patients receiving concomitant narcotics or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants. The initial dose and all subsequent doses should always be titrated slowly; administer over at least 2 minutes and allow an additional 2 or more minutes to fully evaluate the sedative effect. The use of the 1 mg/mL formulation or dilution of the 1 mg/mL or 5 mg/mL formulation is recommended to facilitate slower injection. Doses of sedative medications in pediatric patients must be calculated on a mg/kg basis, and initial doses and all subsequent doses should always be titrated slowly. The initial pediatric dose of midazolam hydrochloride for sedation/anxiolysis/amnesia is age, procedure, and route dependent (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for complete dosing information).
Neonates: Midazolam hydrochloride should not be administered by rapid injection in the neonatal population. Severe hypotension and seizures have been reported following rapid IV administration, particularly with concomitant use of fentanyl (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for complete information).
Midazolam hydrochloride injection, USP is a water-soluble benzodiazepine available as a sterile, nonpyrogenic parenteral dosage form for intravenous or intramuscular injection. Each mL contains midazolam hydrochloride equivalent to 1 mg or 5 mg midazolam USP compounded with 0.8% sodium chloride and 0.01 % disodium edetate with 1 % benzyl alcohol as preservative; the pH is 3 (2.5 to 3.5) and is adjusted with hydrochloric acid and, if necessary, sodium hydroxide.
Midazolam is a white to light yellow crystalline compound, insoluble in water. The hydrochloride salt of midazolam, which is formed in situ , is soluble in aqueous solutions. Chemically, midazolam HCl is 8-chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H -imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine hydrochloride. Midazolam hydrochloride has the chemical formula C18 H13 ClFN3 •HCl, a calculated molecular weight of 362.25 and the following structural formula:
Under the acidic conditions required to solubilize midazolam in the product, midazolam is present as an equilibrium mixture (shown below) of the closed ring form shown above and an open-ring structure formed by the acid-catalyzed ring opening of the 4,5-double bond of the diazepine ring. The amount of open-ring form is dependent upon the pH of the solution. At the specified pH of the product, the solution may contain up to about 25% of the open-ring compound. At the physiologic conditions under which the product is absorbed (pH of 5 to 8) into the systemic circulation, any open-ring form present reverts to the physiologically active, lipophilic, closed-ring form (midazolam) and is absorbed as such.
The following chart plots the percentage of midazolam present as the open-ring form as a function of pH in aqueous solutions. As indicated in the graph, the amount of open-ring compound present in solution is sensitive to changes in pH over the pH range specified for the product: 3.0 to 4.0 for the 1 mg/mL concentration and 3.0 to 3.6 for the 5 mg/mL concentration. Above pH 5, at least 99% of the mixture is present in the closed-ring form.
The effects of midazolam hydrochloride on the CNS are dependent on the dose administered, the route of administration, and the presence or absence of other medications. Onset time of sedative effects after IM administration in adults is 15 minutes, with peak sedation occurring 30 to 60 minutes following injection. In one adult study, when tested the following day, 73% of the patients who received midazolam hydrochloride intramuscularly had no recall of memory cards shown 30 minutes following drug administration; 40% had no recall of the memory cards shown 60 minutes following drug administration. Onset time of sedative effects in the pediatric population begins within 5 minutes and peaks at 15 to 30 minutes depending upon the dose administered. In pediatric patients, up to 85% had no recall of pictures shown after receiving intramuscular midazolam hydrochloride compared with 5% of the placebo controls.
Sedation in adult and pediatric patients is achieved within 3 to 5 minutes after intravenous (IV) injection; the time of onset is affected by total dose administered and the concurrent administration of narcotic premedication. Seventy-one percent of the adult patients in endoscopy studies had no recall of introduction of the endoscope; 82% of the patients had no recall of withdrawal of the endoscope. In one study of pediatric patients undergoing lumbar puncture or bone marrow aspiration, 88% of patients had impaired recall vs 9% of the placebo controls. In another pediatric oncology study, 91% of midazolam hydrochloride treated patients were amnestic compared with 35% of patients who had received fentanyl alone.
When midazolam hydrochloride is given IV as an anesthetic induction agent, induction of anesthesia occurs in approximately 1.5 minutes when narcotic premedication has been administered and in 2 to 2.5 minutes without narcotic premedication or other sedative premedication. Some impairment in a test of memory was noted in 90% of the patients studied. A dose response study of pediatric patients premedicated with 1 mg/kg intramuscular (IM) meperidine found that only 4 out of 6 pediatric patients who received 600 mcg/kg IV midazolam hydrochloride lost consciousness, with eye closing at 108 to 140 seconds. This group was compared with pediatric patients who were given thiopental 5 mg/kg IV; 6 out of 6 closed their eyes at 20 ± 3.2 seconds. Midazolam hydrochloride did not dependably induce anesthesia at this dose despite concomitant opioid administration in pediatric patients.
Midazolam hydrochloride, used as directed, does not delay awakening from general anesthesia in adults. Gross tests of recovery after awakening (orientation, ability to stand and walk, suitability for discharge from the recovery room, return to baseline Trieger competency) usually indicate recovery within 2 hours but recovery may take up to 6 hours in some cases. When compared with patients who received thiopental, patients who received midazolam generally recovered at a slightly slower rate. Recovery from anesthesia or sedation for procedures in pediatric patients depends on the dose of midazolam hydrochloride administered, coadministration of other medications causing CNS depression and duration of the procedure.
In patients without intracranial lesions, induction of general anesthesia with IV midazolam hydrochloride is associated with a moderate decrease in cerebrospinal fluid pressure (lumbar puncture measurements), similar to that observed following IV thiopental. Preliminary data in neurosurgical patients with normal intracranial pressure but decreased compliance (subarachnoid screw measurements) show comparable elevations of intracranial pressure with midazolam hydrochloride and with thiopental during intubation. No similar studies have been reported in pediatric patients.
The usual recommended intramuscular premedicating doses of midazolam hydrochloride do not depress the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide stimulation to a clinically significant extent in adults. Intravenous induction doses of midazolam hydrochloride depress the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide stimulation for 15 minutes or more beyond the duration of ventilatory depression following administration of thiopental in adults. Impairment of ventilatory response to carbon dioxide is more marked in adult patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sedation with IV midazolam hydrochloride does not adversely affect the mechanics of respiration (resistance, static recoil, most lung volume measurements); total lung capacity and peak expiratory flow decrease significantly but static compliance and maximum expiratory flow at 50% of awake total lung capacity (Vmax ) increase. In one study of pediatric patients under general anesthesia, intramuscular midazolam hydrochloride (100 mcg/kg or 200 mcg/kg) was shown to depress the response to carbon dioxide in a dose-related manner.
In cardiac hemodynamic studies in adults, IV induction of general anesthesia with midazolam hydrochloride was associated with a slight to moderate decrease in mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume and systemic vascular resistance. Slow heart rates (less than 65/minute), particularly in patients taking propranolol for angina, tended to rise slightly; faster heart rates (e.g., 85/minute) tended to slow slightly. In pediatric patients, a comparison of IV midazolam hydrochloride (500 mcg/kg) with propofol (2.5 mg/kg) revealed a mean 15% decrease in systolic blood pressure in patients who had received IV midazolam hydrochloride vs. a mean 25% decrease in systolic blood pressure following propofol.
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