Misoprostol is rapidly metabolized in the mother to misoprostol acid, which is biologically active and is excreted in breast milk. There are no published reports of adverse effects of misoprostol in breast-feeding infants of mothers taking misoprostol. Caution should be exercised when misoprostol is administered to a nursing woman..
Gastrointestinal: In subjects receiving Misoprostol Tablets 400 or 800 mcg daily in clinical trials, the most frequent gastrointestinal adverse events were diarrhea and abdominal pain. The incidence of diarrhea at 800 mcg in controlled trials in patients on NSAIDs ranged from 14 to 40% and in all studies (over 5,000 patients) averaged 13%. Abdominal pain occurred in 13 to 20% of patients in NSAID trials and about 7% in all studies, but there was no consistent difference from placebo.
Diarrhea was dose related and usually developed early in the course of therapy (after 13 days), usually was self-limiting (often resolving after 8 days), but sometimes required discontinuation of Misoprostol Tablets (2% of the patients). Rare instances of profound diarrhea leading to severe dehydration have been reported. Patients with an underlying condition such as inflammatory bowel disease, or those in whom dehydration, were it to occur, would be dangerous, should be monitored carefully if Misoprostol Tablets is prescribed. The incidence of diarrhea can be minimized by administering after meals and at bedtime, and by avoiding coadministration of Misoprostol Tablets with magnesium-containing antacids.
Gynecological: Women who received Misoprostol Tablets during clinical trials reported the following gynecological disorders: spotting (0.7%), cramps (0.6%), hypermenorrhea (0.5%), menstrual disorder (0.3%) and dysmenorrhea (0.1%). Postmenopausal vaginal bleeding may be related to Misoprostol Tablets administration. If it occurs, diagnostic workup should be undertaken to rule out gynecological pathology. (See boxed WARNINGS.)
Elderly: There were no significant differences in the safety profile of Misoprostol Tablets in approximately 500 ulcer patients who were 65 years of age or older compared with younger patients.
Additional adverse events which were reported are categorized as follows:
Incidence greater than 1%: In clinical trials, the following adverse reactions were reported by more than 1% of the subjects receiving Misoprostol Tablets and may be causally related to the drug: nausea (3.2%), flatulence (2.9%), headache (2.4%), dyspepsia (2.0%), vomiting (1.3%), and constipation (1.1%). However, there were no significant differences between the incidences of these events for Misoprostol Tablets and placebo.
Causal relationship unknown: The following adverse events were infrequently reported. Causal relationships between Misoprostol Tablets and these events have not been established but cannot be excluded:
Body as a whole: aches/pains, asthenia, fatigue, fever, chills, rigors, weight changes.
Skin: rash, dermatitis, alopecia, pallor, breast pain.
Special senses: abnormal taste, abnormal vision, conjunctivitis, deafness, tinnitus, earache.
Respiratory: upper respiratory tract infection, bronchitis, bronchospasm, dyspnea, pneumonia, epistaxis.
Cardiovascular: chest pain, edema, diaphoresis, hypotension, hypertension, arrhythmia, phlebitis, increased cardiac enzymes, syncope, myocardial infarction (some fatal), thromboembolic events (e.g., pulmonary embolism, arterial thrombosis, and CVA).
Gastrointestinal: GI bleeding, GI inflammation/infection, rectal disorder, abnormal hepatobiliary function, gingivitis, reflux, dysphagia, amylase increase.
Hypersensitivity: anaphylactic reaction
Metabolic: glycosuria, gout, increased nitrogen, increased alkaline phosphatase.
Genitourinary: polyuria, dysuria, hematuria, urinary tract infection.
Nervous system/Psychiatric: anxiety, change in appetite, depression, drowsiness, dizziness, thirst, impotence, loss of libido, sweating increase, neuropathy, neurosis, confusion.
Musculoskeletal: arthralgia, myalgia, muscle cramps, stiffness, back pain.
Blood/Coagulation: anemia, abnormal differential, thrombocytopenia, purpura, ESR increased.
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Novel Laboratories, Inc. at 1-866-403-7592 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch
The toxic dose of Misoprostol Tablets in humans has not been determined. Cumulative total daily doses of 1600 mcg have been tolerated, with only symptoms of gastrointestinal discomfort being reported. In animals, the acute toxic effects are diarrhea, gastrointestinal lesions, focal cardiac necrosis, hepatic necrosis, renal tubular necrosis, testicular atrophy, respiratory difficulties, and depression of the central nervous system. Clinical signs that may indicate an overdose are sedation, tremor, convulsions, dyspnea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, palpitations, hypotension, or bradycardia. Symptoms should be treated with supportive therapy.
It is not known if misoprostol acid is dialyzable. However, because misoprostol is metabolized like a fatty acid, it is unlikely that dialysis would be appropriate treatment for overdosage.
The recommended adult oral dose of Misoprostol Tablets for reducing the risk of NSAID-induced gastric ulcers is 200 mcg four times daily with food. If this dose cannot be tolerated, a dose of 100 mcg can be used. (See Clinical Pharmacology: Clinical studies.) Misoprostol Tablets should be taken for the duration of NSAID therapy as prescribed by the physician. Misoprostol Tablets should be taken with a meal, and the last dose of the day should be at bedtime.
Adjustment of the dosing schedule in renally impaired patients is not routinely needed, but dosage can be reduced if the 200-mcg dose is not tolerated. (See Clinical Pharmacology.)
Bottles of 60: 40032-160-06
Bottles of 120: 40032-160-12
Misoprostol Tablets 200-mcg tablets are round, white flat-faced beveled edge bisected tablets, debossed “161” above the bisect and “n” below the bisect and plain on the other side; supplied as:
Bottles of 60: 40032-161-06
Bottles of 100: 40032-161-01
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Store in a dry area.
Misoprostol Tablets is being prescribed by your doctor to decrease the chance of getting stomach ulcers related to the arthritis/pain medication that you take.
Do not take Misoprostol Tablets to reduce the risk of NSAID-induced ulcers if you are pregnant. (See boxed WARNINGS.) Misoprostol Tablets can cause abortion (sometimes incomplete which could lead to dangerous bleeding and require hospitalization and surgery), premature birth, or birth defects. It is also important to avoid pregnancy while taking this medication and for at least one month or through one menstrual cycle after you stop taking it. Misoprostol Tablets has been reported to cause the uterus to rupture (tear) when given after the eighth week of pregnancy. Rupture (tearing) of the uterus can result in severe bleeding, hysterectomy, and/or maternal or fetal death.
If you become pregnant during Misoprostol Tablets therapy, stop taking Misoprostol Tablets and contact your physician immediately. Remember that even if you are on a means of birth control it is still possible to become pregnant. Should this occur, stop taking Misoprostol Tablets and contact your physician immediately.
Misoprostol Tablets may cause diarrhea, abdominal cramping, and/or nausea in some people. In most cases these problems develop during the first few weeks of therapy and stop after about a week. You can minimize possible diarrhea by making sure you take Misoprostol Tablets with food.
Because these side effects are usually mild to moderate and usually go away in a matter of days, most patients can continue to take Misoprostol Tablets. If you have prolonged difficulty (more than 8 days), or if you have severe diarrhea, cramping and/or nausea, call your doctor.
Take Misoprostol Tablets only according to the directions given by your physician.
Do not give Misoprostol Tablets to anyone else. It has been prescribed for your specific condition, may not be the correct treatment for another person, and would be dangerous if the other person were pregnant.
This information sheet does not cover all possible side effects of Misoprostol Tablets. This patient information leaflet does not address the side effects of your arthritis/pain medication. See your doctor if you have questions.
Keep out of reach of children.
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