Allergic Reaction — Hypotension, urticaria, dyspnea, and rashes have been reported occasionally.
Anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid reactions have been reported rarely.
Cutaneous — Extravasation at the infusion site has been reported, which may result in erythema, swelling, pain, burning, and/or blue discoloration of the skin. Extravasation can result in tissue necrosis with resultant need for debridement and skin grafting. Phlebitis has also been reported at the site of the infusion.
Hematologic — Topoisomerase II inhibitors, including mitoxantrone, in combination with other antineoplastic agents or alone, have been associated with the development of acute leukemia (see WARNINGS).
Leukemia — Myelosuppression is rapid in onset and is consistent with the requirement to produce significant marrow hypoplasia in order to achieve a response in acute leukemia. The incidences of infection and bleeding seen in the U.S. trial are consistent with those reported for other standard induction regimens.
Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer -In a randomized study where dose escalation was required for neutrophil counts greater than 1000/mm3 , Grade 4 neutropenia (ANC < 500 /mm3) was observed in 54% of patients treated with mitoxantrone + low-dose prednisone. In a separate randomized trial where patients were treated with 14 mg/m2 , Grade 4 neutropenia in 23% of patients treated with mitoxantrone + hydrocortisone was observed. Neutropenic fever/infection occurred in 11% and 10% of patients receiving mitoxantrone + corticosteroids, respectively, on the two trials. Platelets <50,000/mm3 were noted in 4% and 3% of patients receiving mitoxantrone + corticosteroids on these trials, and there was one patient death on mitoxantrone + hydrocortisone due to intracranial hemorrhage after a fall.
Gastrointestinal — Nausea and vomiting occurred acutely in most patients and may have contributed to reports of dehydration, but were generally mild to moderate and could be controlled through the use of antiemetics. Stomatitis/mucositis occurred within 1 week of therapy.
Cardiovascular — Congestive heart failure, tachycardia, EKG changes including arrhythmias, chest pain, and asymptomatic decreases in left ventricular ejection fraction have occurred. (See WARNINGS.)
Pulmonary — Interstitial pneumonitis has been reported in cancer patients receiving combination chemotherapy that included mitoxantrone.
There is no known specific antidote for mitoxantrone. Accidental overdoses have been reported. Four patients receiving 140 to 180 mg/m2 as a single bolus injection died as a result of severe leukopenia with infection. Hematologic support and antimicrobial therapy may be required during prolonged periods of severe myelosuppression.
Although patients with severe renal failure have not been studied, mitoxantrone is extensively tissue bound and it is unlikely that the therapeutic effect or toxicity would be mitigated by peritoneal or hemodialysis.
(See also WARNINGS.)
Multiple Sclerosis: The recommended dosage of mitoxantrone is 12 mg/m2 given as a short (approximately 5 to 15 minutes) intravenous infusion every 3 months. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) should be evaluated by echocardiogram or MUGA prior to administration of the initial dose of mitoxantrone and all subsequent doses. In addition, LVEF evaluations are recommended if signs or symptoms of congestive heart failure develop at any time during treatment with mitoxantrone. Mitoxantrone should not be administered to multiple sclerosis patients with an LVEF <50%, with a clinically significant reduction in LVEF, or to those who have received a cumulative lifetime dose of ≥ 140 mg/m2. Complete blood counts, including platelets, should be monitored prior to each course of mitoxantrone and in the event that signs or symptoms of infection develop. Mitoxantrone generally should not be administered to multiple sclerosis patients with neutrophil counts less than 1500 cells/mm3. Liver function tests should also be monitored prior to each course. Mitoxantrone therapy in multiple sclerosis patients with abnormal liver function tests is not recommended because mitoxantrone clearance is reduced by hepatic impairment and no laboratory measurement can predict drug clearance and dose adjustments.
Women with multiple sclerosis who are biologically capable of becoming pregnant, even if they are using birth control, should have a pregnancy test, and the results should be known, before receiving each dose of mitoxantrone (see WARNINGS, Pregnancy).
Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer: Based on data from two Phase 3 comparative trials of mitoxantrone plus corticosteroids versus corticosteroids alone, the recommended dosage of mitoxantrone is 12 to 14 mg/m2 given as a short intravenous infusion every 21 days.
Combination Initial Therapy for ANLL in Adults: For induction, the recommended dosage is 12 mg/m2 of mitoxantrone daily on Days 1 to 3 given as an intravenous infusion, and 100 mg/m2 of cytarabine for 7 days given as a continuous 24-hour infusion on Days 1 to 7.
Most complete remissions will occur following the initial course of induction therapy. In the event of an incomplete antileukemic response, a second induction course may be given. Mitoxantrone should be given for 2 days and cytarabine for 5 days using the same daily dosage levels.
If severe or life-threatening nonhematologic toxicity is observed during the first induction course, the second induction course should be withheld until toxicity resolves.
Consolidation therapy which was used in two large randomized multicenter trials consisted of mitoxantrone, 12 mg/m2 given by intravenous infusion daily on Days 1 and 2 and cytarabine, 100 mg/m2 for 5 days given as a continuous 24-hour infusion on Days 1 to 5. The first course was given approximately 6 weeks after the final induction course; the second was generally administered 4 weeks after the first. Severe myelosuppression occurred. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY.)
Hepatic Impairment: For patients with hepatic impairment, there is at present no laboratory measurement that allows for dose adjustment recommendations. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Special Populations, Hepatic Impairment.)
MITOXANTRONE INJECTION MUST BE DILUTED PRIOR TO USE.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.
The dose of mitoxantrone should be diluted to at least 50 mL with either 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection or 5% Dextrose Injection. Mitoxantrone may be further diluted into Dextrose 5% in Water, Normal Saline or Dextrose 5% with Normal Saline and used immediately. DO NOT FREEZE.
Mitoxantrone should not be mixed in the same infusion as heparin since a precipitate may form. Because specific compatibility data are not available, it is recommended that mitoxantrone not be mixed in the same infusion with other drugs. The diluted solution should be introduced slowly into the tubing as a freely running intravenous infusion of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection or 5% Dextrose Injection over a period of not less than 3 minutes. Unused infusion solutions should be discarded immediately in an appropriate fashion. In the case of multidose use, after penetration of the stopper, the remaining portion of the undiluted mitoxantrone injection concentrate should be stored not longer than 7 days between 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F)[See USP Controlled Room Temperature] or 14 days under refrigeration. DO NOT FREEZE. CONTAINS NO PRESERVATIVE.
Care in the administration of mitoxantrone will reduce the chance of extravasation. Mitoxantrone should be administered into the tubing of a freely running intravenous infusion of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection or 5% Dextrose Injection. The tubing should be attached to a Butterfly needle or other suitable device and inserted preferably into a large vein. If possible, avoid veins over joints or in extremities with compromised venous or lymphatic drainage. Care should be taken to avoid extravasation at the infusion site and to avoid contact of mitoxantrone with the skin, mucous membranes or eyes. MITOXANTRONE SHOULD NOT BE ADMINISTERED SUBCUTANEOUSLY. If any signs or symptoms of extravasation have occurred, including burning, pain, pruritis, erythema, swelling, blue discoloration, or ulceration, the injection or infusion should be immediately terminated and restarted in another vein. During intravenous administration of mitoxantrone extravasation may occur with or without an accompanying stinging or burning sensation even if blood returns well on aspiration of the infusion needle. If it is known or suspected that subcutaneous extravasation has occurred, it is recommended that intermittent ice packs be placed over the area of extravasation and that the affected extremity be elevated. Because of the progressive nature of extravasation reactions, the area of injection should be frequently examined and surgery consultation obtained early if there is any sign of a local reaction.
Skin accidentally exposed to mitoxantrone should be rinsed copiously with warm water and if the eyes are involved, standard irrigation techniques should be used immediately. The use of goggles, gloves, and protective gowns is recommended during preparation and administration of the drug.
Procedures for proper handling and disposal of anticancer drugs should be considered. Several guidelines on this subject have been published.1-4 There is no general agreement that all of the procedures recommended in the guidelines are necessary or appropriate.
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