- Montelukast sodium tablets, USP 10 mg are beige coloured, rounded square, biconvex, film coated tablet debossed “M10” on one side and plain on the other side.
Montelukast sodium tablets are contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to any of its components.
Serious neuropsychiatric (NP) events have been reported with use of montelukast sodium. These postmarketing reports have been highly variable and included, but were not limited to, agitation, aggressive behavior or hostility, anxiousness, depression, disorientation, disturbance in attention, dream abnormalities, dysphemia (stuttering), hallucinations, insomnia, irritability, memory impairment, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, restlessness, somnambulism, suicidal thoughts and behavior (including suicide), tic, and tremor. NP events have been reported in adult, adolescent, and pediatric patients with and without a previous history of psychiatric disorder. NP events have been reported mostly during montelukast sodium treatment, but some were reported after montelukast sodium discontinuation. Animal studies showed that montelukast distributes into the brain in rats [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] ; however, the mechanisms underlying montelukast sodium -associated NP events are currently not well understood. Based upon the available data, it is difficult to identify risk factors for or quantify the risk of NP events with montelukast sodium use.
Because of the risk of NP events, the benefits of montelukast sodium may not outweigh the risks in some patients, particularly when the symptoms of disease may be mild and adequately treated with alternative therapies. Reserve use of montelukast sodium for patients with allergic rhinitis who have an inadequate response or intolerance to alternative therapies [see Indications and Usage (1.3)] . In patients with asthma or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, consider the benefits and risks before prescribing montelukast sodium.
Discuss the benefits and risks of montelukast sodium use with patients and caregivers when prescribing montelukast sodium. Advise patients and/or caregivers to be alert for changes in behavior or for new NP symptoms when taking montelukast sodium. If changes in behavior are observed, or if new NP symptoms or suicidal thoughts and/or behavior occur, advise patients to discontinue montelukast sodium and contact a healthcare provider immediately. In many cases, symptoms resolved after stopping montelukast sodium therapy; however, in some cases symptoms persisted after discontinuation of montelukast sodium. Therefore, continue to monitor and provide supportive care until symptoms resolve. Re-evaluate the benefits and risks of restarting treatment with montelukast sodium if such events occur.
Montelukast sodium is not indicated for use in the reversal of bronchospasm in acute asthma attacks, including status asthmaticus. Patients should be advised to have appropriate rescue medication available. Therapy with montelukast sodium can be continued during acute exacerbations of asthma. Patients who have exacerbations of asthma after exercise should have available for rescue a short-acting inhaled β-agonist.
While the dose of inhaled corticosteroid may be reduced gradually under medical supervision, montelukast sodium should not be abruptly substituted for inhaled or oral corticosteroids.
Patients with known aspirin sensitivity should continue avoidance of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents while taking montelukast sodium. Although montelukast sodium is effective in improving airway function in asthmatics with documented aspirin sensitivity, it has not been shown to truncate bronchoconstrictor response to aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in aspirin-sensitive asthmatic patients [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] .
Patients with asthma on therapy with montelukast sodium may present with systemic eosinophilia, sometimes presenting with clinical features of vasculitis consistent with Churg-Strauss syndrome, a condition which is often treated with systemic corticosteroid therapy. These events have been sometimes associated with the reduction of oral corticosteroid therapy. Physicians should be alert to eosinophilia, vasculitic rash, worsening pulmonary symptoms, cardiac complications, and/or neuropathy presenting in their patients. A causal association between montelukast sodium and these underlying conditions has not been established [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
The following clinically significant adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling:
- Neuropsychiatric Events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. In the following description of clinical trials experience, adverse reactions are listed regardless of causality assessment.
The most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥5% and greater than placebo; listed in descending order of frequency) in controlled clinical trials were: upper respiratory infection, fever, headache, pharyngitis, cough, abdominal pain, diarrhea, otitis media, influenza, rhinorrhea, sinusitis, otitis.
Adults and Adolescents 15 Years of Age and Older with Asthma
Montelukast sodium has been evaluated for safety in approximately 2950 adult and adolescent patients 15 years of age and older in clinical trials. In placebo-controlled clinical trials, the following adverse reactions reported with montelukast sodium occurred in greater than or equal to 1% of patients and at an incidence greater than that in patients treated with placebo:
|Montelukast 10 mg/day (%) (n=1955)||Placebo (%) (n=1180)|
|Body As A Whole Pain, abdominal Asthenia/fatigue Fever Trauma||2.9 1.8 1.5 1.0||2.5 1.2 0.9 0.8|
|Digestive System Disorders Dyspepsia Pain, dental Gastroenteritis, infectious||2.1 1.7 1.5||1.1 1.0 0.5|
|Nervous System/Psychiatric Headache Dizziness||18.4 1.9||18.1 1.4|
|Respiratory System Disorders Influenza Cough Congestion, nasal||4.2 2.7 1.6||3.9 2.4 1.3|
|Skin/Skin Appendages Disorder Rash||1.6||1.2|
|Laboratory Adverse Reactions * ALT increased AST increased Pyuria||2.1 1.6 1.0||2.0 1.2 0.9|
The frequency of less common adverse reactions was comparable between montelukast sodium and placebo.
The safety profile of montelukast sodium, when administered as a single dose for prevention of EIB in adult and adolescent patients 15 years of age and older, was consistent with the safety profile previously described for montelukast sodium.
Cumulatively, 569 patients were treated with montelukast sodium for at least 6 months, 480 for one year, and 49 for two years in clinical trials. With prolonged treatment, the adverse reaction profile did not significantly change.
Adults and Adolescents 15 Years of Age and Older with Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis
Montelukast sodium has been evaluated for safety in 2199 adult and adolescent patients 15 years of age and older in clinical trials. Montelukast sodium administered once daily in the morning or in the evening had a safety profile similar to that of placebo. In placebo-controlled clinical trials, the following reaction was reported with montelukast sodium with a frequency ≥1% and at an incidence greater than placebo: upper respiratory infection, 1.9% of patients receiving montelukast sodium vs. 1.5% of patients receiving placebo. In a 4-week, placebo-controlled clinical study, the safety profile was consistent with that observed in 2-week studies. The incidence of somnolence was similar to that of placebo in all studies.
Adults and Adolescents 15 Years of Age and Older with Perennial Allergic Rhinitis
Montelukast sodium has been evaluated for safety in 3357 adult and adolescent patients 15 years of age and older with perennial allergic rhinitis of whom 1632 received montelukast sodium in two, 6-week, clinical studies. Montelukast sodium administered once daily had a safety profile consistent with that observed in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and similar to that of placebo. In these two studies, the following reactions were reported with montelukast sodium with a frequency ≥1% and at an incidence greater than placebo: sinusitis, upper respiratory infection, sinus headache, cough, epistaxis, and increased ALT. The incidence of somnolence was similar to that of placebo.
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