MORPHINE SULFATE- morphine sulfate solution
Pharmaceutical Associates, Inc.
WARNING: RISK OF MEDICATION ERRORS; ADDICTION, ABUSE, AND MISUSE; RISK EVALUATION AND MITIGATION STRATEGY (REMS); LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION; ACCIDENTAL INGESTION; NEONATAL OPIOID WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME; and RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH BENZODIAZEPINES OR OTHER CNS DEPRESSANTS
Risk of Medication Errors
Ensure accuracy when prescribing, dispensing, and administering Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution. Dosing errors due to confusion between mg and mL, and other morphine solutions of different concentrations can result in accidental overdose and death [ see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse
Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution exposes patients and other users to the risks of opioid addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. Assess each patient’s risk prior to prescribing Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution, and monitor all patients regularly for the development of these behaviors and conditions [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ].
Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS):
To ensure that the benefits of opioid analgesics outweigh the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required a REMS for these products [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ].
Under the requirements of the REMS, drug companies with approved opioid analgesic products must make REMS-compliant education programs available to healthcare providers. Healthcare providers are strongly encouraged to
- complete a REMS-compliant education program,
- counsel patients and/or their caregivers, with every prescription, on safe use, serious risks, storage, and disposal of these products,
- emphasize to patients and their caregivers the importance of reading the Medication Guide every time it is provided by their pharmacist, and
- consider other tools to improve patient, household, and community safety.
Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression
Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur with use of Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution. Monitor for respiratory depression, especially during initiation of Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution or following a dose increase [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ].
Accidental ingestion of even one dose of Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution, especially by children, can result in a fatal overdose of morphine [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ].
Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome
Prolonged use of Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. If opioid use is required for a prolonged period in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ].
Risks From Concomitant Use With Benzodiazepines Or Other CNS Depressants
Concomitant use of opioids with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6), Drug Interactions (7)] .
- Reserve concomitant prescribing of Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
- Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required.
Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution is indicated for the management of acute and chronic pain severe enough to require an opioid analgesic and for which alternative treatments are inadequate.
Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution 100 mg per 5 mL (20 mg/mL) is indicated for the relief of acute and chronic pain in opioid-tolerant patients.
Limitations of Use:
Because of the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse with opioids, even at recommended doses [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] , reserve Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options [e.g., non-opioid analgesics or opioid combination products]:
- Have not been tolerated, or are not expected to be tolerated,
- Have not provided adequate analgesia, or are not expected to provide adequate analgesia.
Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution is available in one concentration: 100 mg per 5 mL (20 mg/mL).
Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution 100 mg per 5 mL (20 mg/mL) is for use in opioid-tolerant patients only who have already been receiving opioid therapy. Use this strength only for patients who have already been titrated to a stable analgesic regimen using lower strengths of morphine sulfate and who can benefit from use of a smaller volume of oral solution.
Patients considered to be opioid tolerant are those who are receiving, for one week or longer, at least 60 mg oral morphine per day, 25 mcg transdermal fentanyl per hour, 30 mg oral oxycodone per day, 8 mg oral hydromorphone per day, 25 mg oral oxymorphone per day, 60 mg oral hydrocodone per day, or an equianalgesic dose of another opioid.
Ensure accuracy when prescribing, dispensing, and administering Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution to avoid dosing errors due to confusion between mg and mL, and with other morphine solutions of different concentrations, which could result in accidental overdose and death. Ensure the proper dose is communicated and dispensed. When writing prescriptions, include both the total dose in mg and the total dose in volume.
Always use the enclosed calibrated oral syringe when administering Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution 100 mg per 5 mL (20 mg/mL) to ensure the dose is measured and administered accurately.
Do not use household teaspoons or tablespoons to measure Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution, as using a tablespoon instead of a teaspoon could lead to overdosage.
- Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals [see Warnings and Precautions (5)].
- Initiate the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient’s severity of pain, patient response, prior analgesic treatment experience, and risk factors for addiction, abuse, and misuse [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] .
- Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression, especially within the first 24 to 72 hours of initiating therapy and following dosage increases with Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution and adjust the dosage accordingly [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ].
Initiating Treatment with Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution:
Do not initiate treatment with Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution 100 mg per 5 mL (20 mg per mL) in patients who are opioid naïve. Select an alternate product with lower concentration.
Initiate treatment with Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution in a dosing range of 10 mg to 20 mg every 4 hours as needed for pain.
Conversion from Parenteral Morphine to Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution:
For conversion from parenteral morphine to Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution, anywhere from 3 to 6 mg of oral morphine sulfate may be required to provide pain relief equivalent to 1 mg of parenteral morphine.
Conversion from Other Opioids to Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution:
There is inter-patient variability in the potency of opioid drugs and opioid formulations. Therefore, a conservative approach is advised when determining the total daily dosage of Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution. It is safer to underestimate a patient’s 24-hour Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution dosage than to overestimate the 24-hour Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution dosage and manage an adverse reaction due to overdose. Initiate treatment in a dosage range of 10 to 20 mg every 4 hours as needed for pain.
Conversion from Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution to Extended-Release Morphine:
For a given dose, the same total amount of morphine sulfate is available from Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution and extended-release morphine formulations. The extended duration of release of morphine sulfate from extended-release formulations results in reduced maximum and increased minimum plasma morphine sulfate concentrations than with shorter acting morphine sulfate products. Conversion from Morphine Sulfate Oral Solution to the same total daily dose of an extended-release formulation could lead to excessive sedation at peak serum levels. Therefore, conversion to extended-release morphine formulations must be accompanied by close observation for signs of excessive sedation and respiratory depression.
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