Table 4 below lists adverse reactions that have been identified during post-approval use of moxifloxacin hydrochloride. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
|System Organ Class||Adverse Reactions|
|Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders||Agranulocytosis|
|Pancytopenia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]|
|Cardiac Disorders||Ventricular tachyarrhythmias (including in very rare cases cardiac arrest and torsade de pointes, and usually in patients with concurrent severe underlying proarrhythmic conditions)|
|Ear and Labyrinth Disorders||Hearing impairment, including deafness (reversible in majority of cases)|
|Eye Disorders||Vision loss (especially in the course of CNS reactions, transient in majority of cases)|
|Hepatobiliary Disorders||Hepatitis (predominantly cholestatic)|
|Hepatic failure (including fatal cases)|
|Jaundice Acute hepatic necrosis[see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]|
|Immune System Disorders||Anaphylactic reaction|
|Angioedema (including laryngeal edema) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7, 5.8)]|
|Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders||Tendon rupture [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]|
|Nervous System Disorders||Altered coordination Abnormal gait [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] Myasthenia gravis (exacerbation of)[see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] Muscle weaknessPeripheral neuropathy (that may be irreversible), polyneuropathy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]|
|Psychiatric Disorders||Psychotic reaction (very rarely culminating in self-injurious behavior, such as suicidal ideation/thoughts or suicide attempts [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]|
|Renal and Urinary Disorders||Interstitial nephritis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]|
|Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders||Allergic pneumonitis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]|
|Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders||Photosensitivity/phototoxicity reaction[see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)]|
|Toxic epidermal necrolysis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]|
7 Drug Interactions with Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride
Fluoroquinolones, including moxifloxacin hydrochloride, form chelates with alkaline earth and transition metal cations. Oral administration of moxifloxacin hydrochloride with antacids containing aluminum or magnesium, with sucralfate, with metal cations such as iron, or with multivitamins containing iron or zinc, or with formulations containing divalent and trivalent cations such as didanosine buffered tablets for oral suspension or the pediatric powder for oral solution, may substantially interfere with the absorption of moxifloxacin hydrochloride, resulting in systemic concentrations considerably lower than desired. Therefore, moxifloxacin hydrochloride should be taken at least 4 hours before or 8 hours after these agents [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Fluoroquinolones, including moxifloxacin hydrochloride, have been reported to enhance the anticoagulant effects of warfarin or its derivatives in the patient population. In addition, infectious disease and its accompanying inflammatory process, age, and general status of the patient are risk factors for increased anticoagulant activity. Therefore the prothrombin time, International Normalized Ratio (INR), or other suitable anticoagulation tests should be closely monitored if moxifloxacin hydrochloride is administered concomitantly with warfarin or its derivatives [see Adverse Reactions (6.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with fluoroquinolones, including moxifloxacin hydrochloride, and an antidiabetic agent. Therefore, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when these agents are co-administered. If a hypoglycemic reaction occurs, moxifloxacin hydrochloride should be discontinued and appropriate therapy should be initiated immediately [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
The concomitant administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with a fluoroquinolone, including moxifloxacin hydrochloride, may increase the risks of CNS stimulation and convulsions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
There is limited information available on the potential for a pharmacodynamic interaction in humans between moxifloxacin hydrochloride and other drugs that prolong the QTc interval of the electrocardiogram. Sotalol, a Class III antiarrhythmic, has been shown to further increase the QTc interval when combined with high doses of intravenous moxifloxacin hydrochloride in dogs. Therefore, moxifloxacin hydrochloride should be avoided with Class IA and Class III antiarrhythmics [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6), and Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)].
There are no available human data establishing a drug associated risk with the use of moxifloxacin.
Based on animal studies with moxifloxacin, moxifloxacin hydrochloride may cause fetal harm. Moxifloxacin was not teratogenic when administered to pregnant rats (IV and oral), rabbits (IV), and monkeys (oral) at exposures that were 0.25 to 2.5 times of those at the human clinical dose (400 mg/day moxifloxacin hydrochloride). However, when moxifloxacin was administered to rats and rabbits during pregnancy and throughout lactation (rats only) at doses associated with maternal toxicity, decreased neonatal body weights, increased incidence of skeletal variations (rib and vertebra combined), and increased fetal loss were observed (see Data). Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to the fetus.
The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. However, the background risk in the U.S. general population of major birth defects is 2 to 4% and of miscarriage is 15 to 20% of clinically recognized pregnancies.
Animal reproductive and development studies were done in rats, rabbits and cynomolgus macaques. Moxifloxacin was not teratogenic when administered to pregnant rats during organogenesis (gestation days 6 to 17) at oral doses as high as 500 mg/kg/day or 0.24 times the maximum recommended human dose based on systemic exposure (AUC), but decreased fetal body weights and slightly delayed fetal skeletal development were observed. Intravenous administration of 80 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area) to pregnant rats resulted in maternal toxicity and a marginal effect on fetal and placental weights and the appearance of the placenta (Gestation days 6 to 17). There was no evidence of teratogenicity at intravenous doses as high as 80 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area) in pregnant rats during organogenesis (Gestation days 6 to 17). Intravenous administration of 20 mg/kg/day (approximately equal to the maximum recommended human oral dose based upon systemic exposure) to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis (gestation days 6 to 20) resulted in decreased fetal body weights and delayed fetal skeletal ossification. When rib and vertebral malformations were combined, there was an increased fetal and litter incidence of these effects in rabbits. Signs of maternal toxicity in rabbits at this dose included mortality, abortions, marked reduction of food consumption, decreased water intake, body weight loss and hypoactivity. There was no evidence of teratogenicity when pregnant cynomolgus macaques were given oral doses as high as 100 mg/kg/day (2.5 times the maximum recommended human dose based upon systemic exposure) during organogenesis (gestation days 20 to 50). An increased incidence of smaller fetuses was observed at 100 mg/kg/day in macaques. In a pre- and postnatal development study conducted in rats given oral doses from Gestation day 6, throughout gestation and rearing to Postpartum day 21, effects observed at 500 mg/kg/day (0.24 times the maximum recommended human dose based on systemic exposure (AUC)) included slight increases in duration of pregnancy and prenatal loss, reduced pup birth weight and decreased neonatal survival. Treatment-related maternal mortality occurred during gestation at 500 mg/kg/day in this study.
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