Inspect the MultiHance vial visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. Do not use the solution if it is discolored or particulate matter is present. Draw MultiHance into a syringe and inject using sterile technique.
MultiHance is contraindicated in patients with known allergic or hypersensitivity reactions to gadolinium-based contrast agents [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) increase the risk for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) among patients with impaired elimination of the drugs. Avoid use of GBCAs among these patients unless the diagnostic information is essential and not available with non-contrast enhanced MRI or other modalities. The GBCA-associated NSF risk appears highest for patients with chronic, severe kidney disease (GFR <30 mL/min/1.73m2) as well as patients with acute kidney injury. The risk appears lower for patients with chronic, moderate kidney disease (GFR 30-59 mL/min/1.73m2) and little, if any, for patients with chronic, mild kidney disease (GFR 60-89 mL/min/1.73m2). NSF may result in fatal or debilitating fibrosis affecting the skin, muscle and internal organs. Report any diagnosis of NSF following MultiHance administration to Bracco Diagnostics (1-800-257-5181) or FDA (1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch).
Screen patients for acute kidney injury and other conditions that may reduce renal function. Features of acute kidney injury consist of rapid (over hours to days) and usually reversible decrease in kidney function, commonly in the setting of surgery, severe infection, injury or drug-induced kidney toxicity. Serum creatinine levels and estimated GFR may not reliably assess renal function in the setting of acute kidney injury. For patients at risk for chronically reduced renal function (e.g., age >60 years, diabetes mellitus or chronic hypertension), estimate the GFR through laboratory testing.
Among the factors that may increase the risk for NSF are repeated or higher than recommended doses of a GBCA and the degree of renal impairment at the time of exposure. Record the specific GBCA and the dose administered to a patient. For patients at highest risk for NSF, do not exceed the recommended MultiHance dose and allow a sufficient period of time for elimination of the drug prior to re-administration. For patients receiving hemodialysis, physicians may consider the prompt initiation of hemodialysis following the administration of a GBCA in order to enhance the contrast agent’s elimination. The usefulness of hemodialysis in the prevention of NSF is unknown [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12)].
Anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions have been reported, involving cardiovascular, respiratory, and/or cutaneous manifestations. Some patients experienced circulatory collapse and died. In most cases, initial symptoms occurred within minutes of MultiHance administration and resolved with prompt emergency treatment.
Prior to MultiHance administration, ensure the availability of personnel trained and medications to treat hypersensitivity reactions. If such a reaction occurs stop MultiHance and immediately begin appropriate therapy. Additionally, consider the risk for hypersensitivity reactions, especially in patients with a history of hypersensitivity reactions or a history of asthma or other allergic disorders. Observe patients for signs and symptoms of a hypersensitivity reaction during and for up to 2 hours after MultiHance administration.
Gadolinium is retained for months or years in several organs. The highest concentrations (nanomoles per gram of tissue) have been identified in the bone, followed by other organs (e.g. brain, skin, kidney, liver, and spleen). The duration of retention also varies by tissue and is longest in bone. Linear GBCAs cause more retention than macrocyclic GBCAs. At equivalent doses, gadolinium retention varies among the linear agents with Omniscan (gadodiamide) and Optimark (gadoversetamide) causing greater retention than other linear agents [Eovist (gadoxetate disodium), Magnevist (gadopentetate dimeglumine), MultiHance (gadobenate dimeglumine)]. Retention is lowest and similar among the macrocyclic GBCAs [Dotarem (gadoterate meglumine), Gadavist (gadobutrol), ProHance (gadoteridol)].
Consequences of gadolinium retention in the brain have not been established. Pathologic and clinical consequences of GBCA administration and retention in skin and other organs have been established in patients with impaired renal function [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. There are rare reports of pathologic skin changes in patients with normal renal function. Adverse events involving multiple organ systems have been reported in patients with normal renal function without an established causal link to gadolinium retention [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
While clinical consequences of gadolinium retention have not been established in patients with normal renal function, certain patients might be at higher risk. These include patients requiring multiple lifetime doses, pregnant and pediatric patients, and patients with inflammatory conditions. Consider the retention characteristics of the agent when choosing a GBCA for these patients. Minimize repetitive GBCA imaging studies, particularly closely spaced studies when possible.
In patients with renal insufficiency, acute renal failure requiring dialysis or worsening renal function have occurred with the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents. The risk of renal failure may increase with increasing dose of the contrast agent. Screen all patients for renal dysfunction by obtaining a history and/or laboratory tests. Consider follow-up renal function assessments for patients with a history of renal dysfunction.
Extravasation of MultiHance may lead to injection site reactions, characterized by local pain or burning sensation, swelling, blistering, and necrosis. In animal experiments, local reactions including eschar and necrosis were noted even on Day 8 post perivenous injection of MultiHance. Exercise caution to avoid local extravasation during intravenous administration of MultiHance. If extravasation occurs, evaluate and treat as necessary if local reactions develop.
Cardiac arrhythmias have been observed in patients receiving MultiHance in clinical trials [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) ]. Assess patients for underlying conditions or medications that predispose to arrhythmias.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled, 24-hour post dose continuous monitoring, crossover study in 47 subjects evaluated the effect of 0.2 mmol/kg MultiHance on ECG intervals, including QTc. The average changes in QTc values compared with placebo were minimal (<5 msec). QTc prolongation between 30 and 60 msec were noted in 20 subjects who received MultiHance vs. 11 subjects who received placebo. Prolongations ≥61 msec were noted in 6 subjects who received MultiHance and in 3 subjects who received placebo. None of these subjects had associated malignant arrhythmias. The effects on QTc by MultiHance dose, other drugs, and medical conditions were not systematically studied.
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