Mycophenolate Mofetil (Page 2 of 10)

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

For oral suspension: 35 grams mycophenolate mofetil, USP in a white to off-white powder for reconstitution (200 mg/mL upon reconstitution).

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Allergic reactions to mycophenolate mofetil have been observed; therefore, mycophenolate mofetil is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to mycophenolate mofetil, mycophenolic acid (MPA) or any component of the drug product.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Embryofetal Toxicity

Use of mycophenolate mofetil during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of first trimester pregnancy loss and an increased risk of congenital malformations, especially external ear and other facial abnormalities including cleft lip and palate, and anomalies of the distal limbs, heart, esophagus, kidney and nervous system. Females of reproductive potential must be made aware of these risks and must be counseled regarding pregnancy prevention and planning. Avoid use of mycophenolate mofetil during pregnancy if safer treatment options are available [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3)].

5.2 Lymphoma and Other Malignancies

Patients receiving immunosuppressants, including mycophenolate mofetil, are at increased risk of developing lymphomas and other malignancies, particularly of the skin [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. The risk appears to be related to the intensity and duration of immunosuppression rather than to the use of any specific agent. For patients with increased risk for skin cancer, exposure to sunlight and UV light should be limited by wearing protective clothing and using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with a high protection factor.

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) developed in 0.4% to 1% of patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil (2 grams or 3 grams) with other immunosuppressive agents in controlled clinical trials of kidney, heart and liver transplant patients [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. The majority of PTLD cases appear to be related to Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) infection. The risk of PTLD appears greatest in those individuals who are EBV seronegative, a population which includes many young children. In pediatric patients, no other malignancies besides PTLD were observed in clinical trials [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

5.3 Serious Infections

Patients receiving immunosuppressants, including mycophenolate mofetil, are at increased risk of developing bacterial, fungal, protozoal and new or reactivated viral infections, including opportunistic infections. The risk increases with the total immunosuppressive load. These infections may lead to serious outcomes, including hospitalizations and death [see Adverse Reactions (6.1, 6.2)].

Serious viral infections reported include:

  • Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN), especially due to BK virus infection
  • JC virus-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), and
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections: CMV seronegative transplant patients who receive an organ from a CMV seropositive donor are at highest risk of CMV viremia and CMV disease.
  • Viral reactivation in patients infected with Hepatitis B and C
  • COVID-19

Consider dose reduction or discontinuation of mycophenolate mofetil in patients who develop new infections or reactivate viral infections, weighing the risk that reduced immunosuppression represents to the functioning allograft.

PVAN, especially due to BK virus infection, is associated with serious outcomes, including deteriorating renal function and renal graft loss [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. Patient monitoring may help detect patients at risk for PVAN.

PML, which is sometimes fatal, commonly presents with hemiparesis, apathy, confusion, cognitive deficiencies, and ataxia [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. In immunosuppressed patients, physicians should consider PML in the differential diagnosis in patients reporting neurological symptoms.

The risk of CMV viremia and CMV disease is highest among transplant recipients seronegative for CMV at time of transplant who receive a graft from a CMV seropositive donor. Therapeutic approaches to limiting CMV disease exist and should be routinely provided. Patient monitoring may help detect patients at risk for CMV disease.

Viral reactivation has been reported in patients infected with HBV or HCV. Monitoring infected patients for clinical and laboratory signs of active HBV or HCV infection is recommended.

5.4 Blood Dyscrasias: Neutropenia and Pure Red Cell Aplasia (PRCA)

Severe neutropenia [absolute neutrophil count (ANC) <0.5 x 103 /μL] developed in transplant patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil 3 grams daily [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil for oral suspension should be monitored for neutropenia. Neutropenia has been observed most frequently in the period from 31 to 180 days post-transplant in patients treated for prevention of kidney, heart and liver rejection. The development of neutropenia may be related to mycophenolate mofetil itself, concomitant medications, viral infections, or a combination of these causes. If neutropenia develops (ANC <1.3 x 103 /μL), dosing with mycophenolate mofetil for oral suspension should be interrupted or the dose reduced, appropriate diagnostic tests performed, and the patient managed appropriately [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].

Patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil for oral suspension should be instructed to report immediately any evidence of infection, unexpected bruising, bleeding or any other manifestation of bone marrow depression.

Consider monitoring with complete blood counts weekly for the first month, twice monthly for the second and third months, and monthly for the remainder of the first year.

Cases of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) have been reported in patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil in combination with other immunosuppressive agents. In some cases, PRCA was found to be reversible with dose reduction or cessation of mycophenolate mofetil therapy. In transplant patients, however, reduced immunosuppression may place the graft at risk.

5.5 Gastrointestinal Complications

Gastrointestinal bleeding requiring hospitalization, ulceration and perforations were observed in clinical trials. Physicians should be aware of these serious adverse effects particularly when administering mycophenolate mofetil for oral suspension to patients with a gastrointestinal disease.

5.6 Patients with Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl-Transferase Deficiency (HGPRT)

Mycophenolate mofetil is an inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitor; therefore it should be avoided in patients with hereditary deficiencies of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HGPRT) such as Lesch-Nyhan and Kelley-Seegmiller syndromes because it may cause an exacerbation of disease symptoms characterized by the overproduction and accumulation of uric acid leading to symptoms associated with gout such as acute arthritis, tophi, nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis and renal disease including renal failure.

5.7 Acute Inflammatory Syndrome Associated with Mycophenolate Products

Acute inflammatory syndrome (AIS) has been reported with the use of mycophenolate mofetil and mycophenolate products, and some cases have resulted in hospitalization. AIS is a paradoxical pro-inflammatory reaction characterized by fever, arthralgias, arthritis, muscle pain and elevated inflammatory markers including, C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, without evidence of infection or underlying disease recurrence. Symptoms occur within weeks to months of initiation of treatment or a dose increase. After discontinuation, improvement of symptoms and inflammatory markers are usually observed within 24 to 48 hours.

Monitor patients for symptoms and laboratory parameters of AIS when starting treatment with mycophenolate products or when increasing the dosage. Discontinue treatment and consider other treatment alternatives based on the risk and benefit for the patient.

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