The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets or other MPA derivatives. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure:
- Congenital malformations, including ear, facial, cardiac and nervous system malformations and an increased incidence of first trimester pregnancy loss have been reported following exposure to MMF during pregnancy [seeBoxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
- Infections [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4, 5.5) ]
- Cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), sometimes fatal.
- Polyomavirus associated nephropathy (PVAN), especially due to BK virus infection, associated with serious outcomes, including deteriorating renal function and renal graft loss.
- Viral reactivation in patients infected with HBV or HCV.
- Cases of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) have been reported in patients treated with MPA derivatives in combination with other immunosuppressive agents [seeWarnings and Precautions (5.6) ].
The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets: agranulocytosis, asthenia, osteomyelitis, lymphadenopathy, lymphopenia, wheezing, dry mouth, gastritis, peritonitis, anorexia, alopecia, pulmonary edema, Kaposi’s sarcoma.
Concomitant use of mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets and antacids decreased plasma concentrations of mycophenolic acid (MPA). It is recommended that mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets and antacids not be administered simultaneously [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
7.3 Cholestyramine, Bile Acid Sequestrates, Oral Activated Charcoal and Other Drugs that Interfere with Enterohepatic Recirculation
Drugs that interrupt enterohepatic recirculation may decrease MPA plasma concentrations when co-administered with MMF. Therefore, do not administer mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets with cholestyramine or other agents that may interfere with enterohepatic recirculation or drugs that may bind bile acids, e.g., bile acid sequestrates or oral activated charcoal, because of the potential to reduce the efficacy of mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
Concomitant administration of sevelamer and MMF may decrease MPA plasma concentrations. Sevelamer and other calcium free phosphate binders should not be administered simultaneously with mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
Cyclosporine inhibits the enterohepatic recirculation of MPA, and therefore, MPA plasma concentrations may be decreased when mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets are co-administered with cyclosporine. Clinicians should be aware that there is also a potential change of MPA plasma concentrations after switching from cyclosporine to other immunosuppressive drugs or from other immunosuppressive drugs to cyclosporine in patients concomitantly receiving mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
MPA plasma concentrations may be decreased when MMF is administrated with norfloxacin and metronidazole. Therefore, mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets are not recommended to be given with the combination of norfloxacin and metronidazole. Although there will be no effect on MPA plasma concentrations when mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets are concomitantly administered with norfloxacin or metronidazole when given separately [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
The concomitant administration of MMF and rifampin may decrease MPA plasma concentrations. Therefore, mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets are not recommended to be given with rifampin concomitantly unless the benefit outweighs the risk [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
In a drug interaction study, mean levonorgestrel AUC was decreased by 15% when co-administered with MMF. Although mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets may not have any influence on the ovulation-suppressing action of oral contraceptives, additional barrier contraceptive methods must be used when mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets is co-administered with hormonal contraceptives (e.g., birth control pill, transdermal patch, vaginal ring, injection, and implant) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Use in Specific Populations (8.3), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
7.9 Acyclovir (Valacyclovir), Ganciclovir (Valganciclovir), and Other Drugs that Undergo Renal Tubular Secretion
The coadministration of MMF and acyclovir or ganciclovir may increase plasma concentrations of mycophenolic acid glucuronide (MPAG) and acyclovir/valacyclovir/ganciclovir/valganciclovir as their coexistence competes for tubular secretion.
Both acyclovir/valacyclovir/ganciclovir/valganciclovir and MPAG concentrations will be also increased in the presence of renal impairment.
Acyclovir/valacyclovir/ganciclovir/valganciclovir may be taken with mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets; however, during the period of treatment, physicians should monitor blood cell counts [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
7.10 Ciprofloxacin, Amoxicillin plus Clavulanic Acid and Other Drugs that Alter the Gastrointestinal Flora
Drugs that alter the gastrointestinal flora, such as ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid may interact with MMF by disrupting enterohepatic recirculation. Interference of MPAG hydrolysis may lead to less MPA available for absorption when mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets is concomitantly administered with ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid. The clinical relevance of this interaction is unclear; however, no dose adjustment of mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets is needed when co-administered with these drugs [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
Administration of a pantoprazole at a dose of 40 mg twice daily for 4 days to healthy volunteers did not alter the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to mycophenolate during pregnancy and those becoming pregnant within 6 weeks of discontinuing mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets treatment. To report a pregnancy or obtain information about the registry, visit www.mycophenolateREMS.com or call 1-800-617-8191.
Following oral or intravenous (IV) administration, MMF is metabolized to mycophenolic acid (MPA), the active ingredient in mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets and the active form of the drug. Use of MMF during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of first trimester pregnancy loss and an increased risk of multiple congenital malformations in multiple organ systems (see Human Data). Oral administration of mycophenolate to rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis produced congenital malformations and pregnancy loss at doses less than the recommended clinical dose (0.05 and 1.1 times exposure at the recommended clinical doses in kidney transplant patients for rats and rabbits, respectively) [see Animal Data ].
Risks and benefits of mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets should be discussed with the patient. When appropriate, consider alternative immunosuppressants with less potential for embryo-fetal toxicity.
The estimated background risk of pregnancy loss and congenital malformations in organ transplant populations is not clear. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
A spectrum of congenital malformations (including multiple malformations in individual newborns) has been reported in 23% to 27% of live births in MMF exposed pregnancies, based on published data from pregnancy registries. Malformations that have been documented include external ear, eye, and other facial abnormalities, including cleft lip and palate, and anomalies of the distal limbs, heart, esophagus, kidney, and nervous system. Based on published data from pregnancy registries, the risk of first trimester pregnancy loss has been reported at 45% to 49% following MMF exposure.
In animal reproductive toxicology studies, congenital malformations and pregnancy loss occurred when pregnant rats and rabbits received mycophenolate at dose multiples equivalent to and less than the recommended human dose. Oral administration of mycophenolate sodium to pregnant rats from Gestational Day 7 to Day 16 at a dose as low as 1 mg per kg resulted in malformations including anophthalmia, exencephaly, and umbilical hernia. The systemic exposure at this dose represents 0.05 times the clinical exposure at the human dose of 1440 mg per day mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets. Oral administration of mycophenolate to pregnant rabbits from Gestational Day 7 to Day 19 resulted in embryofetal lethality and malformations including ectopia cordis, ectopic kidneys, diaphragmatic hernia, and umbilical hernia at doses equal to or greater than 80 mg per kg per day, in the absence of maternal toxicity. This corresponds to about 1.1 times the recommended clinical dose based on BSA.
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