There are no data on the presence of mycophenolate in human milk, or the effects on milk production. There are limited data in the National Transplantation Pregnancy Registry on the effects of mycophenolate on a breastfed child [see Data]. Studies in rats treated with MMF have shown mycophenolic acid to be present in milk. Because available data are limited, it is not possible to exclude potential risks to a breastfeeding infant.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets or from the underlying maternal condition. Because available data are limited, it is not possible to exclude potential risks to a breastfeeding infant.
Limited information is available from the National Transplantation Pregnancy Registry. Of seven infants reported by the National Transplantation Pregnancy Registry to have been breastfed while the mother was taking mycophenolate, all were born at 34 to 40 weeks gestation and breastfed for up to 14 months. No adverse events were reported.
Females of reproductive potential must be made aware of the increased risk of first trimester pregnancy loss and congenital malformations and must be counseled regarding pregnancy prevention and planning.
For female patients taking mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets who are considering pregnancy, consider alternative immunosuppressants with less potential for embryo-fetal toxicity. Risks and benefits of mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets should be discussed with the patient.
To prevent unplanned exposure during pregnancy, females of reproductive potential should have a serum or urine pregnancy test with a sensitivity of at least 25 mIU/mL immediately before starting mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets. Another pregnancy test with the same sensitivity should be done 8 to 10 days later. Repeat pregnancy tests should be performed during routine follow-up visits. Results of all pregnancy tests should be discussed with the patient. In the event of a positive pregnancy test, consider alternative immunosuppressants with less potential for embryo-fetal toxicity whenever possible.
Females of reproductive potential taking mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets must receive contraceptive counseling and use acceptable contraception (see Table 5 for Acceptable Contraception Methods). Patients must use acceptable birth control during entire mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets therapy, and for 6 weeks after stopping mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets, unless the patient chooses abstinence (she chooses to avoid heterosexual intercourse completely).
Patients should be aware that mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets reduces blood levels of the hormones in the oral contraceptive pill and could theoretically reduce its effectiveness [see Patient Counseling Information (17), Drug Interactions (7.8)].
|Methods to Use Alone||Intrauterine devices (IUDs) Tubal sterilization Patient’s partner had a vasectomy|
|Option 2||Hormone Methods choose 1||Barrier Methods choose 1|
|Choose One Hormone Method AND One Barrier Method||Estrogen and Progesterone Oral Contraceptive Pill Transdermal patch Vaginal ring Progesterone-only Injection Implant||AND||Diaphragm with spermicide Cervical cap with spermicide Contraceptive sponge Male condom Female condom|
|Option 3||Barrier Methods choose 1||Barrier Methods choose 1|
|Choose One Barrier Method from each column (must choose two methods)||Diaphragm with spermicide Cervical cap with spermicide Contraceptive sponge||AND||Male condom Female condom|
Genotoxic effects have been observed in animal studies at exposures exceeding the human therapeutic exposures by approximately 2.5 times. Thus, the risk of genotoxic effects on sperm cells cannot be excluded. Based on this potential risk, sexually active male patients and/or their female partners are recommended to use effective contraception during treatment of the male patient and for at least 90 days after cessation of treatment. Also, based on the potential risk of genotoxic effects, male patients should not donate sperm during treatment with mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets and for at least 90 days after cessation of treatment [see Use in Special Populations (8.1), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1), Patient Counseling Information (17)].
The safety and effectiveness of mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets have been established in pediatric kidney transplant patients 5 to 16 years of age who were initiated on mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets at least 6 months post-transplant. Use of mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets in this age group is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets in a similar population of adult kidney transplant patients with additional pharmacokinetic data in pediatric kidney transplant patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.3), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Pediatric doses for patients with BSA <1.19 m2 cannot be accurately administered using currently available formulations of mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets.
The safety and effectiveness of mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets in de novo pediatric kidney transplant patients and in pediatric kidney transplant patients below the age of 5 years have not been established.
Clinical studies of mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Of the 372 patients treated with mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets in the clinical trials, 6% (N=21) were 65 years of age and older and 0.3% (N=1) were 75 years of age and older. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
There have been anecdotal reports of deliberate or accidental overdoses with mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets, whereas not all patients experienced related adverse reactions.
In those overdose cases in which adverse reactions were reported, the reactions fall within the known safety profile of the class. Accordingly, an overdose of mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets could possibly result in oversuppression of the immune system and may increase the susceptibility to infection, including opportunistic infections, fatal infections and sepsis. If blood dyscrasias occur (e.g., neutropenia with absolute neutrophil count <1.5 x 103 /mcL or anemia), it may be appropriate to interrupt or discontinue mycophenolic acid delayed-release tablets.
Possible signs and symptoms of acute overdose could include the following: hematological abnormalities, such as leukopenia and neutropenia, and gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and dyspepsia.
Treatment and Management
General supportive measures and symptomatic treatment should be followed in all cases of overdosage. Although dialysis may be used to remove the inactive metabolite mycophenolic acid glucuronide (MPAG), it would not be expected to remove clinically significant amounts of the active moiety, mycophenolic acid, due to the 98% plasma protein binding of mycophenolic acid. By interfering with enterohepatic circulation of mycophenolic acid, activated charcoal or bile sequestrates, such as cholestyramine, may reduce the systemic mycophenolic acid exposure.
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