N/A- nitazoxanide tablet
Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Nitazoxanide Tablets are indicated for the treatment of diarrhea caused by Giardia lamblia or Cryptosporidium parvum in patients 12 years and older.
Limitations of Use
Nitazoxanide Tablets have not been shown to be effective for the treatment of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum in HIV-infected or immunodeficient patients [ see Clinical Studies (14.2)].
The recommended dosage of Nitazoxanide Tablets in patient 12 years and older is 500 mg orally every 12 hours with food for 3 days.
Nitazoxanide Tablets should not be administered to pediatric patients 11 years of age or younger because a single tablet contains a greater amount of nitazoxanide than the recommended dosing in this pediatric age group. Nitazoxanide Tablets are not interchangeable with Nitazoxanide for Oral Suspension [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]
Round, yellow, film-coated tablets debossed with 77 on one side and plain on the other side. Each tablet contains 500 mg of nitazoxanide.
Nitazoxanide Tablets are contraindicated in patients with a prior hypersensitivity to nitazoxanide or any other ingredient in the formulations.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reactions rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The safety of nitazoxanide was evaluated in 2177 HIV-uninfected subjects who received nitazoxanide at the recommended dose for at least three days. In pooled controlled clinical trials involving 536 HIV-uninfected subjects treated with nitazoxanide, the most common adverse reactions were abdominal pain, headache, chromaturia and nausea (≥2%).
Safety data were analyzed separately for 280 HIV-uninfected subjects ≥12 years of age receiving nitazoxanide at the recommended dose for at least three days in 5 placebo-controlled clinical trials.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of nitazoxanide. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. The following is a list of adverse reactions spontaneously reported with Nitazoxanide Tablets which were not included in clinical trial listings:
Gastrointestinal disorders: diarrhea, gastroesophageal reflux disease
Nervous System disorders: dizziness
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: dyspnea
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: rash, urticaria
Tizoxanide (the active metabolite of nitazoxanide) is highly bound to plasma protein (>99.9%). Therefore, monitor for adverse reactions when administering nitazoxanide concurrently with other highly plasma protein-bound drugs with narrow therapeutic indices, as competition for binding sites may occur (e.g., warfarin).
There are no data with nitazoxanide in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk. No teratogenicity or fetotoxicity was observed in animal reproduction studies with administration of nitazoxanide to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at exposure 30 and 2 times, respectively, the exposure at the maximum recommended human dose of 500 mg twice daily based on body surface area (BSA).
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Nitazoxanide was administered orally to pregnant rats at doses of 0, 200, 800 or 3200 mg/kg/day on gestation days 6 to 15. Nitazoxanide produced no evidence of systemic maternal toxicity when administer once daily via oral gavage to pregnant female rats at levels up to 3200 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis .
In rabbits, nitazoxanide was administered at doses of 0, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day on gestation days 7 to 20. Oral treatment of pregnant rabbits with nitazoxanide during organogenesis resulted in minimal maternal toxicity and no external fetal anomalies.
No information regarding the presence of nitazoxanide in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production is available. The development and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for nitazoxanide and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from nitazoxanide or from the underlying maternal condition.
The safety and efficacy of Nitazoxanide Tablets for the treatment of diarrhea caused by G. lamblia or C. parvum in pediatric patients 12 to 17 years of age has been established based on three (3) randomized, controlled studies with 47 pediatric subjects treated with Nitazoxanide Tablets [ see Clinical Studies (14)].
A single Nitazoxanide Tablet contains a greater amount of nitazoxanide than is recommended for use in pediatric patients 11 years or younger. Therefore, Nitazoxanide Tablets should not be administered to peridatric patients 11 years of age or younger [ see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].
Clinical studies of Nitazoxanide Tablets did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy in elderly patients should be considered when prescribing Nitazoxanide Tablets.
The pharmacokinetics of nitazoxanide in patients with compromised renal or hepatic function has not been studied.
Nitazoxanide Tablets have not been studied for the treatment of diarrhea caused by G. lamblia in HIV-infected or immunodeficient patients. Nitazoxanide Tablets have not been shown to be superior to placebo for the treatment of diarrhea caused by C. parvum in HIV-infected or immunodeficient patients [ see Clinical Studies (14)].
Limited information on nitazoxanide overdosage is available. In the event of overdose, gastric lavage may be appropriate soon after oral administration. Patients should be observed and given symptomatic and supportive treatment. There is no specific antidote for overdose with nitazoxanide. Because tizoxanide is highly protein bound (>99.9%), dialysis is unlikely to significantly reduce plasma concentrations of the drug.
Nitazoxanide Tablets contain the active ingredient, nitazoxanide, a synthetic antiprotozoal for oral administration. Nitazoxanide is a light yellow crystalline powder. It is poorly soluble in ethanol and practically insoluble in water. Chemically, nitazoxanide is 2-acetyloxy- N -(5-nitro-2-thiazolyl)benzamide. The molecular formula is C 12 H 9 N 3 O 5 S and the molecular weight is 307.3. The structural formula is:
Nitazoxanide Tablets contain 500 mg of nitazoxanide and the following inactive ingredients: maize starch, pregelatinized corn starch, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sucrose, sodium starch glycollate, talc, magnesium stearate, soy lecithin, polyvinyl alcohol, xanthan gum, titanium dioxide, D&C Yellow No. 10 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Yellow No. 6 Aluminum Lake, and FD&C Blue No. 2 Aluminum Lake.
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