Nabumetone

NABUMETONE- nabumetone tablet, film coated
Northwind Pharmaceuticals, LLC

BOXED WARNING

Cardiovascular Risk

NSAIDs1 may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may increase with duration of use. Patients with cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease may be at greater risk (see WARNINGS).
Nabumetone tablets are contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).

Gastrointestinal Risk

NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal events (see WARNINGS).

1 Throughout this package insert, the term NSAID refers to a non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

DESCRIPTION

Nabumetone is a naphthylalkanone designated chemically as 4-(6-methoxy-2-naphthalenyl)-2-butanone.

Nabumetone is a white to off-white crystalline substance. It is nonacidic and practically insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and most organic solvents. It has an n-octanol: phosphate buffer partition coefficient of 2,400 at pH 7.4.

Each tablet, for oral administration, contains either 500 mg or 750 mg of nabumetone. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, corn starch, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, povidone, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium starch glycolate, titanium dioxide and triacetin. The 500 mg tablets also contain talc and the 750 mg tablets also contain iron oxide red.

Please see the FDA site for the manufacturer’s complete drug information:

http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=53656d70-6572-4669-6465-6c6973555341

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Nabumetone is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties in pharmacologic studies. As with other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, its mode of action is not known; however, the ability to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis may be involved in the anti-inflammatory effect.

The parent compound is a prodrug, which undergoes hepatic biotransformation to the active component, 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6MNA), that is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis.

Pharmacokinetics

After oral administration, approximately 80% of a radiolabeled dose of nabumetone is found in the urine, indicating that Nabumetone is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Nabumetone itself is not detected in the plasma because, after absorption, it undergoes rapid biotransformation to the principal active metabolite, 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6MNA). Approximately 35% of a 1,000 mg oral dose of nabumetone is converted to 6MNA and 50% is converted into unidentified metabolites which are subsequently excreted in the urine. Following oral administration of nabumetone, 6MNA exhibits pharmacokinetic characteristics that generally follow a one-compartment model with first order input and first order elimination.

6MNA is more than 99% bound to plasma proteins. The free fraction is dependent on total concentration of 6MNA and is proportional to dose over the range of 1,000 mg to 2,000 mg. It is 0.2% to 0.3% at concentrations typically achieved following administration of 1,000 mg of nabumetone and is approximately 0.6% to 0.8% of the total concentrations at steady state following daily administration of 2,000 mg.

Steady-state plasma concentrations of 6MNA are slightly lower than predicted from single-dose data. This may result from the higher fraction of unbound 6MNA which undergoes greater hepatic clearance.

Coadministration of food increases the rate of absorption and subsequent appearance of 6MNA in the plasma but does not affect the extent of conversion of nabumetone into 6MNA. Peak plasma concentrations of 6MNA are increased by approximately one third.

Coadministration with an aluminum-containing antacid had no significant effect on the bioavailability of 6MNA.

Please see the FDA site for the manufacturer’s complete drug information:

http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=53656d70-6572-4669-6465-6c6973555341

INDICATIONS & USAGE

Please see the FDA site for the manufacturer’s complete drug information:

http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=53656d70-6572-4669-6465-6c6973555341

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of nabumetone tablets and other treatment options before deciding to use nabumetone tablets. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).

Nabumetone tablets are indicated for relief of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Nabumetone tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to nabumetone or product excipients.

Nabumetone tablets should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients (see WARNINGS, Anaphylactoid Reactions and PRECAUTIONS, General, Preexisting Asthma).

Nabumetone tablets are contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).

WARNINGS

Cardiovascular Effects

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to 3 years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. All NSAIDs, both COX-2 selective and nonselective, may have a similar risk. Patients with known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease may be at greater risk. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the signs and/or symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.

There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID does increase the risk of serious GI events (see WARNINGS, Gastrointestinal Effects – Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation).

Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10 to 14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Hypertension

NSAIDs, including nabumetone tablets, can lead to onset of new hypertension or worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs. NSAIDs, including nabumetone tablets, should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) should be monitored closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.

Congestive Heart Failure and Edema

Fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients taking NSAIDs. Nabumetone tablets should be used with caution in patients with fluid retention or heart failure.

Gastrointestinal Effects – Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation

NSAIDs, including nabumetone tablets, can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only 1 in 5 patients, who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy, is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occur in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3 to 6 months, and in about 2 to 4% of patients treated for 1 year. These trends continue with longer duration of use, increasing the likelihood of developing a serious GI event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk.

In controlled clinical trials involving 1,677 patients treated with nabumetone (1,140 followed for 1 year and 927 for 2 years), the cumulative incidence of peptic ulcers was 0.3% (95% CI; 0%, 0.6%) at 3 to 6 months, 0.5% (95% CI; 0.1%, 0.9%) at 1 year and 0.8% (95% CI; 0.3%, 1.3%) at 2 years. In patients with active peptic ulcer, physicians must weigh the benefits of therapy with Nabumetone against possible hazards, institute an appropriate ulcer treatment regimen and monitor the patients’ progress carefully.

NSAIDs should be prescribed with extreme caution in those with a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or gastrointestinal bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10 fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk for GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age, and poor general health status. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in elderly or debilitated patients and therefore, special care should be taken in treating this population.

To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest possible duration. Patients and physicians should remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI adverse event is suspected. This should include discontinuation of the NSAID until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out. For high risk patients, alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs should be considered.

Renal Effects

Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of an NSAID results in a dose-dependent decrease in prostaglandin synthesis and, secondarily, in a reduction of renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.

Advanced Renal Disease

No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of nabumetone tablets in patients with advanced renal disease. Therefore, treatment with nabumetone tablets is not recommended in these patients with advanced renal disease. If nabumetone tablet therapy must be initiated, close monitoring of the patient’s renal function is advisable.

Because nabumetone undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism, no adjustment of the dosage of nabumetone is generally necessary in patients with mild renal insufficiency; however, as with all NSAIDs, patients with impaired renal function should be monitored more closely than patients with normal renal function (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics, Renal Insufficiency). In subjects with moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance 30 to 49 mL/min) there is a 50% increase in unbound plasma 6MNA and dose adjustment may be warranted. The oxidized and conjugated metabolites of 6MNA are eliminated primarily by the kidneys.

Anaphylactoid Reactions

As with other NSAIDs, anaphylactoid reactions may occur in patients without known prior exposure to nabumetone tablets. Nabumetone tablets should not be given to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS, General, Preexisting Asthma). Emergency help should be sought in cases where an anaphylactoid reaction occurs.

Skin Reactions

NSAIDs, including nabumetone tablets, can cause serious skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Patients should be informed about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.

Pregnancy

In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, nabumetone tablets should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.

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