Nabumetone (Page 6 of 8)

Impairment of Fertility

Nabumetone did not impair fertility of male or female rats treated orally at doses of 320 mg/kg/day (1,888 mg/m2) before mating.

Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Use of NSAIDs, including nabumetone tablets, can cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus and fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios and, in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. Because of these risks, limit dose and duration of nabumetone tablets use between about 20 and 30 weeks of gestation, and avoid nabumetone tablets use at about 30 weeks of gestation and later in pregnancy (see WARNINGS, Fetal Toxicity).

Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus

Use of NSAIDs, including nabumetone tablets, at about 30 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus.

Oligohydramnios/Neonatal Renal Impairment

Use of NSAIDs at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy has been associated with cases of fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios, and in some cases, neonatal renal impairment.

Data from observational studies regarding other potential embryofetal risks of NSAID use in women in the first or second trimesters of pregnancy are inconclusive. In animal reproduction studies conducted in rats and rabbits, studies have not demonstrated evidence of developmental abnormalities. However, animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response. Based on animal data, prostaglandins have been shown to have an important role in endometrial vascular permeability, blastocyst implantation, and decidualization. In animal studies, administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors such as nabumetone, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss. Prostaglandins also have been shown to have an important role in fetal kidney development. In published animal studies, prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors have been reported to impair kidney development when administered at clinically relevant doses. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population(s) is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions

Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus:

Avoid use of NSAIDs in women at about 30 weeks gestation and later in pregnancy, because NSAIDs, including nabumetone tablets, can cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus (see WARNINGS, Fetal Toxicity).

Oligohydramnios/Neonatal Renal Impairment

If an NSAID is necessary at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy, limit the use to the lowest effective dose and shortest duration possible. If nabumetone tablet treatment extends beyond 48 hours, consider monitoring with ultrasound for oligohydramnios. If oligohydramnios occurs, discontinue nabumetone tablets and follow up according to clinical practice (see WARNINGS, Fetal Toxicity).

Data

Human Data

There are no adequate, well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Nabumetone tablets should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus:

Published literature reports that the use of NSAIDs at about 30 weeks of gestation and later in pregnancy may cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus.

Oligohydramnios/Neonatal Renal Impairment:

Published studies and postmarketing reports describe maternal NSAID use at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy associated with fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios, and in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. These adverse outcomes are seen, on average, after days to weeks of treatment, although oligohydramnios has been infrequently reported as soon as 48 hours after NSAID initiation. In many cases, but not all, the decrease in amniotic fluid was transient and reversible with cessation of the drug. There have been a limited number of case reports of maternal NSAID use and neonatal renal dysfunction without oligohydramnios, some of which were irreversible. Some cases of neonatal renal dysfunction required treatment with invasive procedures, such as exchange transfusion or dialysis.

Methodological limitations of these postmarketing studies and reports include lack of a control group; limited information regarding dose, duration, and timing of drug exposure; and concomitant use of other medications. These limitations preclude establishing a reliable estimate of the risk of adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes with maternal NSAID use. Because the published safety data on neonatal outcomes involved mostly preterm infants, the generalizability of certain reported risks to the full-term infant exposed to NSAIDs through maternal use is uncertain.

Labor and Delivery

In rat studies with NSAIDs, as with other drugs known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, an increased incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased pup survival occurred. The effects of nabumetone tablets on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk, however 6MNA is excreted in the milk of lactating rats. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from nabumetone, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

As with any NSAIDs, caution should be exercised in treating the elderly (65 years and older). Of the 1,677 patients in U.S. clinical studies who were treated with nabumetone, 411 patients (24%) were 65 years or older; 22 patients (1%) were 75 years or older. No overall differences in efficacy or safety were observed between these older patients and younger ones. Similar results were observed in a 1 year, non-U.S. postmarketing surveillance study of 10,800 patients treated with nabumetone, of whom 4,577 patients (42%) were 65 years or older.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Adverse reaction information was derived from blinded-controlled and open-labeled clinical trials and from worldwide marketing experience. In the description below, rates of the more common events (greater than 1%) and many of the less common events (less than 1%) represent results of U.S. clinical studies.

Of the 1,677 patients who received nabumetone during U.S. clinical trials, 1,524 were treated for at least 1 month, 1,327 for at least 3 months, 929 for at least a year, and 750 for at least 2 years. More than 300 patients have been treated for 5 years or longer.

The most frequently reported adverse reactions were related to the gastrointestinal tract and included diarrhea, dyspepsia, and abdominal pain.

Incidence ≥ 1% — Probably Causally Related

Gastrointestinal

Diarrhea (14%), dyspepsia (13%), abdominal pain (12%), constipation*2 , flatulence*2 , nausea*2 , positive stool guaiac*2 , dry mouth, gastritis, stomatitis, vomiting.

Central Nervous System

Dizziness*2 , headache*2 , fatigue, increased sweating, insomnia, nervousness, somnolence.

Dermatologic

Pruritus*2 , rash*2.

Special Senses

Tinnitus*2.

Miscellaneous

Edema*2.

* 2 Incidence of reported reaction between 3% and 9%. Reactions occurring in 1% to 3% of the patients are unmarked.

Incidence < 1% — Probably Causally Related†3

Gastrointestinal

Anorexia, jaundice, duodenal ulcer, dysphagia, gastric ulcer, gastroenteritis, gastrointestinal bleeding, increased appetite, liver function abnormalities, melena, hepatic failure.

Central Nervous System

Asthenia, agitation, anxiety, confusion, depression, malaise, paresthesia, tremor, vertigo.

Dermatologic

Bullous eruptions, photosensitivity, urticaria, pseudoporphyria cutanea tarda, toxic epidermal necrolysis , erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome.

Cardiovascular

Vasculitis.

Metabolic

Weight Gain.

Respiratory

Dyspnea, eosinophilic pneumonia , hypersensitivity pneumonitis , idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis.

Genitourinary

Albuminuria, azotemia, hyperuricemia , interstitial nephritis , nephrotic syndrome , vaginal bleeding , renal failure.

Special Senses

Abnormal vision.

Hematologic/Lymphatic

Thrombocytopenia.

Hypersensitivity

Anaphylactoid reaction , anaphylaxis , angioneurotic edema.

3 Adverse reactions reported only in worldwide postmarketing experience or in the literature, not seen in clinical trials, are considered rarer and are italicized.

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