The use of NAPRELAN® Tablets for the management of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis was assessed in a 12 week double-blind, randomized, placebo and active-controlled study in 348 patients. Two NAPRELAN® 500 mg tablets (1000 mg) once daily and naproxen 500 mg tablets twice daily (1000 mg) were more effective than placebo. Clinical effectiveness was demonstrated at one week and continued for the duration of the study.
The use of NAPRELAN® Tablets for the management of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee was assessed in a 12 week double-blind, placebo and active-controlled study in 347 patients. Two NAPRELAN® 500 mg tablets (1000 mg) once daily and naproxen 500 mg tablets twice daily (1000 mg) were more effective than placebo. Clinical effectiveness was demonstrated at one week and continued for the duration of the study.
The onset of the analgesic effect of NAPRELAN® Tablets was seen within 30 minutes in a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study of patients with pain following oral surgery. In controlled clinical trials, naproxen has been used in combination with gold, D-penicillamine, methotrexate and corticosteroids. Its use in combination with salicylate is not recommended because there is evidence that aspirin increases the rate of excretion of naproxen and data are inadequate to demonstrate that naproxen and aspirin produce greater improvement over that achieved with aspirin alone. In addition, as with other NSAIDs the combination may result in higher frequency of adverse events than demonstrated for either product alone.
In a double-blind randomized, parallel group study, 19 subjects received either two NAPRELAN® 500 mg tablets (1000 mg) once daily or naproxen 500 mg tablets (1000 mg) twice daily for 7 days. Mucosal biopsy scores and endoscopic scores were lower in the subjects who received NAPRELAN® Tablets. In another double-blind, randomized, crossover study, 23 subjects received two NAPRELAN® 500 mg tablets (1000 mg) once daily, naproxen 500 mg tablets (1000 mg) twice daily and aspirin 650 mg four times daily (2600 mg) for 7 days each. There were significantly fewer duodenal erosions seen with NAPRELAN® Tablets than with either naproxen or aspirin. There were significantly fewer gastric erosions with both NAPRELAN® Tablets and naproxen than with aspirin. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown.
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of NAPRELAN® Tablets and other treatment options before deciding to use NAPRELAN® Tablets. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).
NAPRELAN® Tablets are indicated for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, tendinitis, bursitis and acute gout. It is also indicated in the relief of mild to moderate pain and the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.
NAPRELAN® is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to naproxen.
NAPRELAN® should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients (see WARNINGS- Anaphylactoid Reactions, and PRECAUTIONS- Preexisting Asthma).
NAPRELAN® is contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).
Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. All NSAIDs, both COX-2 selective and nonselective, may have a similar risk. Patients with known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease may be at greater risk. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the signs and/or symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.
There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID does increase the risk of serious GI events (see GI Effects – Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation).
Two large, controlled, clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10-14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
NSAIDs, including NAPRELAN® can lead to onset of new hypertension or worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs. NSAIDs, including NAPRELAN® , should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) should be monitored closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.
Fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients taking NSAIDs. NAPRELAN® should be used with caution in patients with fluid retention or heart failure.
NSAIDs, including NAPRELAN® , can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occur in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3-6 months, and in about 2-4% of patients treated for one year. These trends continue with longer duration of use, increasing the likelihood of developing a serious GI event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk.
NSAIDs should be prescribed with extreme caution in those with a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or gastrointestinal bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk for GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age, and poor general health status. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in elderly or debilitated patients and therefore, special care should be taken in treating this population.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest possible duration. Patients and physicians should remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI adverse event is suspected. This should include discontinuation of the NSAID until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out. For high risk patients, alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs should be considered.
Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.
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