Adverse reactions reported in controlled clinical trials in 960 patients treated for rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis are listed below. In general, reactions in patients treated chronically were reported 2 to 10 times more frequently than they were in short-term studies in the 962 patients treated for mild to moderate pain or for dysmenorrhea. The most frequent complaints reported related to the gastrointestinal tract.
A clinical study found gastrointestinal reactions to be more frequent and more severe in rheumatoid arthritis patients taking daily doses of 1500 mg naproxen compared to those taking 750 mg naproxen (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).
In controlled clinical trials with about 80 pediatric patients and in well monitored, open-label studies with about 400 pediatric patients with juvenile arthritis treated with naproxen, the incidence of rash and prolonged bleeding times were increased, the incidence of gastrointestinal and central nervous system reactions were about the same, and the incidence of other reactions were lower in pediatric patients than in adults.
In patients taking naproxen in clinical trials, the most frequently reported adverse experiences in approximately 1% to 10% of patients are:
Gastrointestinal (GI) Experiences, including: heartburn1 , abdominal pain1 , nausea1 , constipation1, diarrhea, dyspepsia, and stomatitis
Central Nervous System: headache1, dizziness1, drowsiness1, lightheadedness, vertigo
Dermatologic: pruritus (itching)1, skin eruptions1, ecchymoses1, sweating, purpura
Special Senses: tinnitus1 , visual disturbances, hearing disturbances
Cardiovascular: edema1 , palpitations.
General: dyspnea1, thirst
In patients taking NSAIDs, the following adverse experiences have also been reported in approximately 1% to 10% of patients.
Gastrointestinal (GI) Experiences, including: flatulence, gross bleeding/perforation, GI ulcers (gastric/duodenal), vomiting
General: abnormal renal function, anemia, elevated liver enzymes, increased bleeding time, rashes
The following are additional adverse experiences reported in <1% of patients taking naproxen during clinical trials and through postmarketing reports. Those adverse reactions observed through postmarketing reports are italicized.
Body as a Whole: anaphylactoid reactions, angioneurotic edema, menstrual disorders, pyrexia (chills and fever)
Cardiovascular: congestive heart failure, vasculitis, hypertension, pulmonary edema
Gastrointestinal: gastrointestinal bleeding and/or perforation, hematemesis, pancreatitis, vomiting, colitis, nonpeptic gastrointestinal ulceration, ulcerative stomatitis, peptic ulceration
Hepatobiliary: jaundice, abnormal liver function tests, hepatitis (some cases have been fatal)
Hemic and Lymphatic: eosinophilia, leucopenia, melena, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, granulocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia
Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia
Nervous System: inability to concentrate, depression, dream abnormalities, insomnia, malaise, myalgia, muscle weakness, aseptic meningitis, cognitive dysfunction, convulsions
Respiratory: eosinophilic pneumonitis, asthma
Dermatologic: alopecia, urticaria, skin rashes, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythemia multiforme, erythema nodosum, fixed drug eruption, lichen planus, pustular reaction, systemic lupus erythematosus, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, photosensitive dermatitis, photosensitivity reactions, including rare cases resembling porphyria cutanea tarda (pseudoporphyria) or epidermolysis bullosa. If skin fragility, blistering or other symptoms suggestive of pseudoporphyria occur, treatment should be discontinued and the patient monitored.
Special Senses: hearing impairment, corneal opacity, papillitis, retrobulbar optic neuritis, papilledema
Urogenital: glomerular nephritis, hematuria, hyperkalemia, interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, renal disease, renal failure, renal papillary necrosis, raised serum creatinine
Reproduction (female): infertility
In patients taking NSAIDs, the following adverse experiences have also been reported in <1% of patients.
Body as a Whole: fever infection, sepsis, anaphylactic reactions, appetite changes, death
Cardiovascular: hypertension, tachycardia, syncope, arrhythmia, hypotension, myocardial infarction
Gastrointestinal: dry mouth, esophagitis, gastric/peptic ulcers, gastritis, glossitis, eructation
Hepatobiliary: hepatitis, liver failure
Hemic and Lymphatic: rectal bleeding, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia
Metabolic and Nutritional: weight changes
Nervous System: anxiety, asthenia, confusion, nervousness, paresthesia, somnolence, tremors, convulsions, coma, hallucinations
Respiratory: asthma, respiratory depression, pneumonia
Dermatologic: exfoliative dermatitis
Special Senses: blurred vision, conjunctivitis
Urogenital: cystitis, dysuria, oliguria/polyuria, proteinuria
1 Incidence of reported reaction between 3% and 9%. Those reactions occuring in less than 3% of the patients are unmarked.
Significant naproxen overdosage may be characterized by lethargy, dizziness, drowsiness, epigastric pain, abdominal discomfort, heartburn, indigestion, nausea, transient alterations in liver function, hypoprothrombinemia, renal dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, apnea, disorientation or vomiting. Gastrointestinal bleeding can occur. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression, and coma may occur, but are rare. Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported with therapeutic ingestion of NSAIDs, and may occur following an overdose.
Patients should be managed by symptomatic and supportive care following a NSAID overdose. There are no specific antidotes. Hemodialysis does not decrease the plasma concentration of naproxen because of the high degree of its protein binding. Emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 to 100 g in adults, 1 to 2 g/kg in children) and/or osmotic cathartic may be indicated in patients seen within 4 hours of ingestion with symptoms or following a large overdose. Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of Naproxen Tablets, USP and other treatment options before deciding to use Naproxen Tablets, USP. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).
After observing the response to initial therapy with Naproxen Tablets, USP, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient’s needs.
Different dose strengths and formulations (i.e., tablets, suspension) of the drug are not necessarily bioequivalent. This difference should be taken into consideration when changing formulation.
Although naproxen tablets, naproxen suspension, naproxen delayed-release tablets, and naproxen sodium tablets all circulate in the plasma as naproxen, they have pharmacokinetic differences that may affect onset of action. Onset of pain relief can begin within 1 hour in patients taking naproxen.
The recommended strategy for initiating therapy is to choose a formulation and a starting dose likely to be effective for the patient and then adjust the dosage based on observation of benefit and/or adverse events. A lower dose should be considered in patients with renal or hepatic impairment or in elderly patients (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS).
Studies indicate that although total plasma concentration of naproxen is unchanged, the unbound plasma fraction of naproxen is increased in the elderly. Caution is advised when high doses are required and some adjustment of dosage may be required in elderly patients. As with other drugs used in the elderly, it is prudent to use the lowest effective dose.
Patients With Moderate to Severe Renal Impairment
Naproxen-containing products are not recommended for use in patients with moderate to severe and severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min) (see WARNINGS: Renal Effects).
Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteoarthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis
Naproxen Tablets, USP
or 375 mg
or 500 mg
During long-term administration, the dose of naproxen may be adjusted up or down depending on the clinical response of the patient. A lower daily dose may suffice for long-term administration. The morning and evening doses do not have to be equal in size and the administration of the drug more frequently than twice daily is not necessary.
In patients who tolerate lower doses well, the dose may be increased to naproxen 1500 mg/day for limited periods of up to 6 months when a higher level of anti-inflammatory/analgesic activity is required. When treating such patients with naproxen 1500 mg/day, the physician should observe sufficient increased clinical benefits to offset the potential increased risk. The morning and evening doses do not have to be equal in size and administration of the drug more frequently than twice daily does not generally make a difference in response (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).
The recommended starting dose is 750 mg of Naproxen Tablets, USP followed by 250 mg every 8 hours until the attack has subsided.
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