NAPROXEN DELAYED-RELEASE- naproxen tablet, delayed release
ALPHAPHARM PTY. LTD.
- NSAIDs may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may increase with duration of use. Patients with cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease maybe at greater risk (see WARNINGS).
- Naproxen is contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).
- NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal events (see WARNINGS).
Naproxen is a member of the arylacetic acid group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The chemical name for naproxen is (+)-6-Methoxy-a-methyl-2-naphthaleneacetic acid. Naproxen has the following structural formula.
Molecular Formula: C14 H14 O3
Molecular Weight: 230.26
Naproxen is practically odourless, white to off-white crystalline substance. It is lipid-soluble, practically insoluble in water at low pH and freely soluble in water at high pH. The octanol/water partition coefficient of naproxen at pH 7.4 is 1.6 to 1.8.
Naproxen delayed-release tablets are enteric-coated tablets containing 375 mg or 500 mg of naproxen and croscarmellose sodium, povidone and magnesium stearate. The enteric coating dispersion contains sodium hydroxide, methacrylic acid copolymer, talc, polyethylene glycol, titanium dioxide, simethicone emulsion and purified water. The dissolution of this enteric-coated naproxen tablet is pH dependent with rapid dissolution above pH 6. There is no dissolution below pH 4.
Naproxen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic properties. The mechanism of action of the naproxen anion, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood but may be related to prostaglandin synthetase inhibition.
Naproxen itself is rapidly and completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with an in vivo bioavailability of 95%. The elimination half-life of naproxen is unchanged across products ranging from 12 to 17 hours. Steady-state levels of naproxen are reached in 4 to 5 days, and the degree of naproxen accumulation is consistent with this half-life.
Naproxen delayed-release tablets are designed with a pH-sensitive coating to provide a barrier to disintegration in the acidic environment of the stomach and to lose integrity in the more neutral environment of the small intestine. The enteric polymer coating selected for naproxen delayed-release tablets dissolves above pH 6. When naproxen delayed-release tablets were given to fasted subjects, peak plasma levels were attained about 4 to 6 hours following the first dose (range: 2 to 12 hours). An in vivo study in man using radiolabeled naproxen delayed-release tablets demonstrated that naproxen delayed-release tablets dissolve primarily in the small intestine rather than in the stomach, so the absorption of the drug is delayed until the stomach is emptied.
When naproxen delayed-release tablets were given to fasted subjects (n=24) in a crossovers study, the following was observed after 1 week of dosing:
Naproxen delayed-release tablets
|Cmax (µg/mL)||94.9 (18%)|
|Tmax (hours)||4 (39%)|
|AUC0-12 hr (µg•hr/mL)||845 (20%)|
* Mean value (coefficient of variation)
When naproxen delayed-release tablets were given as a single dose with antacid (54 mEq buffering capacity), the peak plasma levels of naproxen were un changed, but the time to peak was reduced (mean Tmax fasted 5.6 hours, mean Tmax with antacid 5 hours), although not significantly.
When naproxen delayed-release tablets were given as a single dose with food, peak plasma levels in most subjects were achieved in about 12 hours (range: 4 to 24 hours). Residence time in the small intestine until disintegration was independent of food intake. The presence of food prolonged the time the tablets remained in the stomach, time to first detectable serum naproxen levels, and time to maximal naproxen levels (Tmax ), but did not affect peak naproxen levels (Cmax ).
Naproxen has a volume of distribution of 0.16 L/kg. At therapeutic levels naproxen is greater than 99% albumin-bound. At doses of naproxen greater than 500 mg/day there is less than proportional increase in plasma levels due to an increase in clearance caused by saturation of plasma protein binding at higher doses (average trough Css 36.5, 49.2 and 56.4 mg/L with500, 1000 and 1500 mg daily doses of naproxen, respectively). The naproxen anion has been found in the milk of lactating women at a concentration equivalent to approximately 1% of maximum naproxen concentration in plasma (see PRECAUTIONS: Nursing Mothers).
Naproxen is extensively metabolised in the liver to 6-0-desmethyl naproxen, and both parent and metabolites do not induce metabolising enzymes. Both naproxen and 6-0-desmethylnaproxen are further metabolized to their respective acylglucuronide conjugated metabolites.
The clearance of naproxen is 0.13 mL/min/kg. Approximately 95% of the naproxen from any dose is excreted in the urine, primarily as naproxen (<1%), 6-0-desmethyl naproxen (<1%) or their conjugates (66% to 92%). The plasma half-life of the naproxen anion in humans ranges from 12 to 17 hours. The corresponding half-lives of both naproxen’s metabolites and conjugates are shorter than 12 hours, and their rates of excretion have been found to coincide closely with the rate of naproxen disappearance from the plasma. Small amounts, 3% or less of the administered dose, are excreted in the feces. In patients with renal failure metabolites may accumulate (see WARNINGS: Renal Effects).
In pediatric patients aged 5 to 16 years with arthritis, plasma naproxen levels following a 5 mg/kg single dose of naproxen suspension (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION) were found to be similar to those found in normal adults following a 500 mg dose. The terminal half-life appears to be similar in pediatric and adult patients. Pharmacokinetic studies of naproxen were not performed in pediatric patients younger than 5 years of age. Pharmacokinetic parameters appear to be similar following administration of naproxen suspension or tablets in pediatric patients. Naproxen delayed-release tablets have not been studied in subjects under the age of 18.
Studies indicate that although total plasma concentration of naproxen is unchanged, the unbound plasma fraction of naproxen is increased in the elderly, although the unbound fraction is <1% of the total naproxen concentration. Unbound trough naproxen concentrations in elderly subjects have been reported to range from 0.12% to 0.19% of total naproxen concentration, compared with 0.05% to 0.075% in younger subjects. The clinical significance of this finding is unclear, although it is possible that the increase in free naproxen concentration could be associated with an increase in the rate of adverse events per a given dosage in some elderly patients.
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