Naproxen Sodium (Page 3 of 8)

5.11 Hematologic Toxicity

Anemia has occurred in NSAID-treated patients. This may be due to occult or gross blood loss, fluid retention, or an incompletely described effect on erythropoiesis. If a patient treated with naproxen sodium has any signs or symptoms of anemia, monitor hemoglobin or hematocrit.

NSAIDs, including naproxen sodium may increase the risk of bleeding events. Co-morbid conditions such as coagulation disorders or concomitant use of warfarin and other anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may increase this risk. Monitor these patients for signs of bleeding [see Drug Interactions (7)].

5.12 Masking of Inflammation and Fever

The pharmacological activity of naproxen sodium in reducing inflammation, and possibly fever, may diminish the utility of diagnostic signs in detecting infections.

5.13 Long-Term Use and Laboratory Monitoring

Because serious GI bleeding, hepatotoxicity, and renal injury can occur without warning symptoms or signs, consider monitoring patients on long-term NSAID treatment with a CBC and a chemistry profile periodically [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2,5.3, 5.6)].

Patients with initial hemoglobin values of 10g or less who are to receive long-term therapy should have hemoglobin values determined periodically.

Because of adverse eye findings in animal studies with drugs of this class, it is recommended that ophthalmic studies be carried out if any change or disturbance in vision occurs.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
GI Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
Hepatotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
Hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
Heart Failure and Edema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
Anaphylactic Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
Serious Skin Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]
Hematologic Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Adverse reactions reported in controlled clinical trials in 960 patients treated for rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis are listed below. In general, reactions in patients treated chronically were reported 2 to 10 times more frequently than they were in short-term studies in the 962 patients treated for mild to moderate pain or for dysmenorrhea. The most frequent complaints reported related to the gastrointestinal tract.

A clinical study found gastrointestinal reactions to be more frequent and more severe in rheumatoid arthritis patients taking daily doses of 1500 mg naproxen compared to those taking 750 mg naproxen.

In controlled clinical trials with about 80 pediatric patients and in well-monitored, open-label studies with about 400 pediatric patients with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis treated with naproxen, the incidence of rash and prolonged bleeding times were greater, the incidence of gastrointestinal and central nervous system reactions were about the same, and the incidence of other reactions were lower in pediatric patients than in adults.

In patients taking naproxen in clinical trials, the most frequently reported adverse experiences in approximately 1% to 10% of patients were:

Gastrointestinal (GI) Experiences, including: heartburn*, abdominal pain*, nausea*, constipation*, diarrhea, dyspepsia, stomatitis

Central Nervous System: headache*, dizziness*, drowsiness*, lightheadedness, vertigo

Dermatologic: pruritus (itching)*, skin eruptions*, ecchymoses*, sweating, purpura

Special Senses: tinnitus*, visual disturbances, hearing disturbances

Cardiovascular: edema*, palpitations

General: dyspnea*, thirst

*Incidence of reported reaction between 3% and 9%. Those reactions occurring in less than 3% of the patients are unmarked.

In patients taking NSAIDs, the following adverse experiences have also been reported in approximately 1% to 10% of patients.

Gastrointestinal (GI) Experiences, including: flatulence, gross bleeding/perforation, GI ulcers (gastric/duodenal), vomiting

General: abnormal renal function, anemia, elevated liver enzymes, increased bleeding time, rashes

The following are additional adverse experiences reported in <1% of patients taking naproxen during clinical trials.

Gastrointestinal: pancreatitis, vomiting

Hepatobiliary: jaundice

Hemic and Lymphatic: melena, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis

Nervous System: inability to concentrate

Dermatologic: skin rashes

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of naproxen. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

The following are additional adverse experiences reported in <1% of patients taking naproxen during clinical trials and through postmarketing reports. Those adverse reactions observed through postmarketing reports are italicized.

Body as a Whole: anaphylactoid reactions, angioneurotic edema, menstrual disorders, pyrexia (chills and fever)

Cardiovascular: congestive heart failure, vasculitis, hypertension, pulmonary edema

Gastrointestinal: inflammation, bleeding (sometimes fatal, particularly in the elderly), ulceration, perforation and obstruction of the upper or lower gastrointestinal tract. Esophagitis, stomatitis, hematemesis, colitis, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease).

Hepatobiliary: abnormal liver function tests, hepatitis (some cases have been fatal)

Hemic and Lymphatic: eosinophilia, leucopenia, granulocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia

Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia

Nervous System: depression, dream abnormalities, insomnia, malaise, myalgia, muscle weakness, aseptic meningitis, cognitive dysfunction, convulsions

Respiratory: eosinophilic pneumonitis, asthma

Dermatologic: alopecia, urticaria, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, fixed drug eruption, lichen planus, pustular reaction, systemic lupus erythematoses, bullous reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, photosensitive dermatitis, photosensitivity reactions, including rare cases resembling porphyria cutanea tarda (pseudoporphyria) or epidermolysis bullosa. If skin fragility, blistering or other symptoms suggestive of pseudoporphyria occur, treatment should be discontinued and the patient monitored.

Special Senses: hearing impairment, corneal opacity, papillitis, retrobulbar optic neuritis, papilledema

Urogenital: glomerular nephritis, hematuria, hyperkalemia, interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, renal disease, renal failure, renal papillary necrosis, raised serum creatinine

Reproduction (female): infertility

In patients taking NSAIDs, the following adverse experiences have also been reported in <1% of patients.

Body as a Whole: fever, infection, sepsis, anaphylactic reactions, appetite changes, death

Cardiovascular: hypertension, tachycardia, syncope, arrhythmia, hypotension, myocardial infarction

Gastrointestinal: dry mouth, esophagitis, gastric/peptic ulcers, gastritis, glossitis, eructation

Hepatobiliary: hepatitis, liver failure

Hemic and Lymphatic: rectal bleeding, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia

Metabolic and Nutritional: weight changes

Nervous System: anxiety, asthenia, confusion, nervousness, paresthesia, somnolence, tremors, convulsions, coma, hallucinations

Respiratory: asthma, respiratory depression, pneumonia

Dermatologic: exfoliative dermatitis

Special Senses: blurred vision, conjunctivitis

Urogenital: cystitis, dysuria, oliguria/polyuria, proteinuria

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