Natesto (Page 3 of 5)
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of testosterone. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Cardiovascular Disorders: myocardial infarction, stroke [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
Vascular Disorders: Venous thromboembolism [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5)]
7. DRUG INTERACTIONS
Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may necessitate a decrease in the dose of anti-diabetic medication.
7.2 Oral Anticoagulants
Changes in anticoagulant activity may be seen with androgens, therefore more frequent monitoring of international normalized ration (INR) and prothrombin time is recommended in patients taking warfarin, especially at the initiation and termination of androgen therapy.
The concurrent use of testosterone with corticosteroids may result in increased fluid retention and requires monitoring particularly in patients with cardiac, renal, or hepatic disease.
A 2.6% decrease in mean AUC(0-24) and 3.6% decrease in mean Cmax of total testosterone was observed in males with symptomatic seasonal rhinitis when treated with oxymetazoline 30 minutes prior to Natesto compared to when left untreated. Oxymetazoline does not impact the absorption of testosterone when concomitantly administered with Natesto [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)]. Drug interaction potential with other nasally administered drugs other than oxymetazoline has not been studied.
8. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category X — Natesto is contraindicated during pregnancy or in women who may become pregnant. Testosterone is teratogenic and may cause fetal harm. Exposure of a fetus to androgens may result in varying degrees of virilization. If this drug is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus.
8.3. Nursing Mothers
Although it is not known how much testosterone transfers into human milk, Natesto is contraindicated in nursing women because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants.
8.4. Pediatric Use
Safety and efficacy of Natesto has not been established in pediatric patients less than 18 years of age. Improper use may result in acceleration of bone age and premature closure of epiphyses.
8.5. Geriatric Use
There have not been sufficient numbers of geriatric patients involved in controlled clinical studies utilizing Natesto to determine whether efficacy in those over 65 years of age differs from younger subjects.
Of the 306 patients enrolled in the Phase 3 clinical trial utilizing Natesto, 60 were 65 years of age or older, and 9 were 75 years of age or older. There are insufficient long-term safety data in geriatric patients to assess the potential for increased risks of cardiovascular disease and prostate cancer.
Geriatric patients treated with androgens may also be at risk for worsening of signs and symptoms of BPH [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3)].
8.6. Renal Impairment
No studies were conducted in patients with renal impairment.
8.7. Hepatic Impairment
No studies were conducted in patients with hepatic impairment.
8.8. Use in Men With Body Mass Index greater than 35 kg/m2
Safety and efficacy of Natesto in males with body mass index greater than 35 kg/m2 has not been established.
8.9. Allergic Rhinitis
Serum total testosterone concentrations were decreased by 21 to 24% in males with symptomatic allergic rhinitis, whether treated with nasal decongestants such as oxymetazoline, or left untreated [ see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)].
9. DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE
9.1. Controlled Substance
Natesto contains testosterone, a Schedule III controlled substance in the Controlled Substances Act.
Drug abuse is intentional non-therapeutic use of a drug, even once, for its rewarding psychological and physiological effects. Abuse and misuse of testosterone are seen in male and female adults and adolescents. Testosterone, often in combination with other anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), and not obtained by prescription through a pharmacy, may be abused by athletes and bodybuilders. There have been reports of misuse by men taking higher doses of legally obtained testosterone than prescribed and continuing testosterone despite adverse events or against medical advice.
Abuse-Related Adverse Reactions
Serious adverse reactions have been reported in individuals who abuse anabolic androgenic steroids and include cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular accident, hepatotoxicity, and serious psychiatric manifestations, including major depression, mania, paranoia, psychosis, delusions, hallucinations, hostility and aggression.
The following adverse reactions have also been reported in men: transient ischemic attacks, convulsions, hypomania, irritability, dyslipidemias, testicular atrophy, subfertility, and infertility.
The following additional adverse reactions have been reported in women: hirsutism, virilization, deepening of voice, clitoral enlargement, breast atrophy, male-pattern baldness, and menstrual irregularities.
The following adverse reactions have been reported in male and female adolescents: premature closure of bony epiphyses with termination of growth, and precocious puberty.
Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size and may include abuse of other agents, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Behaviors Associated with Addiction
Continued abuse of testosterone and other anabolic steroids, leading to addiction is characterized by the following behaviors:
- Taking greater dosages than prescribed
- Continued drug use despite medical and social problems due to drug use
- Spending significant time to obtain the drug when supplies of the drug are interrupted
- Giving a higher priority to drug use than other obligations
- Having difficulty in discontinuing the drug despite desires and attempts to do so
- Experiencing withdrawal symptoms upon abrupt discontinuation of use
Physical dependence is characterized by withdrawal symptoms after abrupt drug discontinuation or a significant dose reduction of a drug. Individuals taking supratherapeutic doses of testosterone may experience withdrawal symptoms lasting for weeks or months which include depressed mood, major depression, fatigue, craving, restlessness, irritability, anorexia, insomnia, decreased libido and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
Drug dependence in individuals using approved doses of testosterone for approved indications has not been documented.
No cases of overdose with Natesto have been reported in clinical trials. There is 1 report of acute overdosage by injection of testosterone enanthate: testosterone concentrations of up to 11,400 ng/dL were implicated in a cerebrovascular accident.
Treatment of overdosage would consist of discontinuation of Natesto together with appropriate symptomatic and supportive care.
Natesto (testosterone) nasal gel is a slightly yellow gel containing 5.5 mg of testosterone in 122.5 mg of Natesto gel for nasal administration. The active pharmacologic ingredient in Natesto is testosterone, an androgen. Testosterone is a white to practically white crystalline powder chemically described as 17β-Hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one. The structural formula is:
The inactive ingredients are castor oil, oleoyl polyoxylglycerides, and colloidal silicon dioxide.
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