NEBIVOLOL- nebivolol hydrochloride tablet
ANI Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Nebivolol tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Nebivolol tablets may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents [see Drug Interactions (7)].
Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes, including the class to which this drug principally belongs. There are no controlled trials demonstrating risk reduction with nebivolol.
Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).
Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly.
Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.
Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The dose of nebivolol must be individualized to the needs of the patient. For most patients, the recommended starting dose is 5 mg once daily, with or without food, as monotherapy or in combination with other agents. For patients requiring further reduction in blood pressure, the dose can be increased at 2-week intervals up to 40 mg. A more frequent dosing regimen is unlikely to be beneficial.
In patients with severe renal impairment (ClCr less than 30 mL/min) the recommended initial dose is 2.5 mg once daily; titrate up slowly if needed. Nebivolol has not been studied in patients receiving dialysis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)].
In patients with moderate hepatic impairment, the recommended initial dose is 2.5 mg once daily; titrate up slowly if needed. Nebivolol has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment and therefore it is not recommended in that population [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)].
It is not necessary to adjust the dose in the elderly [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
CYP2D6 Polymorphism No dose adjustments are necessary for patients who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. The clinical effect and safety profile observed in poor metabolizers were similar to those of extensive metabolizers [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Nebivolol tablets are available for oral administration containing nebivolol hydrochloride equivalent to 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg of nebivolol.
2.5 mg tablets: White to off-white, round, unscored tablets debossed with “A4” on one side with the other side blank.
5 mg tablets: White to off-white, round, unscored tablets debossed with “A49” on one side with the other side blank.
10 mg tablets: White to off-white, round, unscored tablets debossed with “A50” on one side with the other side blank.
20 mg tablets: White to off-white, round, unscored tablets debossed with “A51” on one side with the other side blank.
Nebivolol tablets are contraindicated in the following conditions:
- Severe bradycardia
- Heart block greater than first degree
- Patients with cardiogenic shock
- Decompensated cardiac failure
- Sick sinus syndrome (unless a permanent pacemaker is in place)
- Patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh >B)
- Patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Abrupt Cessation of Therapy
Do not abruptly discontinue nebivolol therapy in patients with coronary artery disease. Severe exacerbation of angina, myocardial infarction and ventricular arrhythmias have been reported in patients with coronary artery disease following the abrupt discontinuation of therapy with β-blockers. Myocardial infarction and ventricular arrhythmias may occur with or without preceding exacerbation of the angina pectoris. Caution patients without overt coronary artery disease against interruption or abrupt discontinuation of therapy. As with other β-blockers, when discontinuation of nebivolol is planned, carefully observe and advise patients to minimize physical activity. Taper nebivolol over 1 to 2 weeks when possible. If the angina worsens or acute coronary insufficiency develops, re-start nebivolol promptly, at least temporarily.
5.2 Angina and Acute Myocardial Infarction
Nebivolol was not studied in patients with angina pectoris or who had a recent MI.
5.3 Bronchospastic Diseases
In general, patients with bronchospastic diseases should not receive β-blockers.
5.4 Anesthesia and Major Surgery
Because beta-blocker withdrawal has been associated with an increased risk of MI and chest pain, patients already on beta-blockers should generally continue treatment throughout the perioperative period. If nebivolol is to be continued perioperatively, monitor patients closely when anesthetic agents which depress myocardial function, such as ether, cyclopropane, and trichloroethylene, are used. If β-blocking therapy is withdrawn prior to major surgery, the impaired ability of the heart to respond to reflex adrenergic stimuli may augment the risks of general anesthesia and surgical procedures.
The β-blocking effects of nebivolol can be reversed by β-agonists, e.g., dobutamine or isoproterenol. However, such patients may be subject to protracted severe hypotension. Additionally, difficulty in restarting and maintaining the heartbeat has been reported with β-blockers.
5.5 Diabetes and Hypoglycemia
β-blockers may mask some of the manifestations of hypoglycemia, particularly tachycardia. Nonselective β-blockers may potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and delay recovery of serum glucose levels. It is not known whether nebivolol has these effects. Advise patients subject to spontaneous hypoglycemia and diabetic patients receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents about these possibilities.
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