NEBIVOLOL — nebivolol hydrochloride tablet
Cadila Pharmaceuticals Limited
Nebivolol tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure [see Clinical Studies ( 14.1) ]. Nebivolol may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents [see Drug Interactions ( 7)].
Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes, including the class to which this drug principally belongs. There are no controlled trials demonstrating risk reduction with nebivolol.
Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).
Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly.
Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.
Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.
The dose of nebivolol tablets must be individualized to the needs of the patient. For most patients, the recommended starting dose is 5 mg once daily, with or without food, as monotherapy or in combination with other agents. For patients requiring further reduction in blood pressure, the dose can be increased at 2-week intervals up to 40 mg. A more frequent dosing regimen is unlikely to be beneficial.
In patients with severe renal impairment (ClCr less than 30 mL/min) the recommended initial dose is 2.5 mg once daily; titrate up slowly if needed. Nebivolol tablets have not been studied in patients receiving dialysis [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.4) ].
In patients with moderate hepatic impairment, the recommended initial dose is 2.5 mg once daily; titrate up slowly if needed. Nebivolol tablets have not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment and Therefore it is not recommended in that population [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.4) ].
It is not necessary to adjust the dose in the elderly [see use in Specific Populations ( 8.5) ].
No dose adjustments are necessary for patients who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. The clinical effect and safety profile observed in poor metabolizers were similar to those of extensive metabolizers [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3) ].
Nebivolol is available as tablets for oral administration containing nebivolol hydrochloride equivalent to 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg of nebivolol.
Nebivolol tablets are white to off white, round, biconvex, unscored tablet debossed with “C50” (for 2.5 mg), “C51″(for 5 mg), “C52″(for 10 mg), “C53″(for 20 mg) on one side and plain on the other side.
Nebivolol Tablets is contraindicated in the following conditions:
- Severe bradycardia
- Heart block greater than first degree
- Patients with cardiogenic shock
- Decompensated cardiac failure
- Sick sinus syndrome (unless a permanent pacemaker is in place)
- Patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh >B)
- Patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product.
Do not abruptly discontinue nebivolol therapy in patients with coronary artery disease. Severe exacerbation of angina, myocardial infarction and ventricular arrhythmias have been reported in patients with coronary artery disease following the abrupt discontinuation of therapy with β-blockers.
Myocardial infarction and ventricular arrhythmias may occur with or without preceding exacerbation of the angina pectoris. Caution patients without overt coronary artery disease against interruption or abrupt discontinuation of therapy. As with other β-blockers, when discontinuation of nebivolol is planned, carefully observe and advise patients to minimize physical activity.Taper nebivolol over 1 to 2 weeks when possible. If the angina worsens or acute coronary insufficiency develops, re-start nebivolol promptly, at least temporarily.
Nebivolol was not studied in patients with angina pectoris or who had a recent MI.
In general, patients with bronchospastic diseases should not receive β-blockers.
Because beta-blocker withdrawal has been associated with an increased risk of MI and chest pain, Patients already on beta-blockers should generally continue treatment throughout the perioperative period. If nebivolol is to be continued perioperatively, monitor patients closely when anesthetic agents which depress myocardial function, such as ether, cyclopropane, and trichloroethylene, are used. If β-blocking therapy is withdrawn prior to major surgery, the impaired ability of the heart to respond to reflex adrenergic stimuli may augment the risks of general anesthesia and surgical procedures.
The β-blocking effects of nebivolol can be reversed by β-agonists, e.g., dobutamine or isoproterenol. However, such patients may be subject to protracted severe hypotension. Additionally, difficulty in restarting and maintaining the heartbeat has been reported with β-blockers.
β-blockers may mask some of the manifestations of hypoglycemia, particularly tachycardia. Nonselective β-blockers may potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and delay recovery of serum glucose levels. It is not known whether nebivolol has these effects. Advise patients subject to spontaneous hypoglycemia and diabetic patients receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents about these possibilities.
β-blockers may mask clinical signs of hyperthyroidism, such as tachycardia. Abrupt withdrawal of β-blockers may be followed by an exacerbation of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism or may precipitate a thyroid storm.
β-blockers can precipitate or aggravate symptoms of arterial insufficiency in patients with peripheral vascular disease.
Because of significant negative inotropic and chronotropic effects in patients treated with β-blockers and calcium channel blockers of the verapamil and diltiazem type, monitor the ECG and blood pressure in patients treated concomitantly with these agents.
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