NEFAZODONE HYDROCHLORIDE- nefazodone hydrochloride tablet
Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Antidepressants increased the risk compared to placebo of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults in short-term studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Anyone considering the use of nefazodone hydrochloride tablets or any other antidepressant in a child, adolescent, or young adult must balance this risk with the clinical need. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction in risk with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older. Depression and certain other psychiatric disorders are themselves associated with increases in the risk of suicide. Patients of all ages who are started on antidepressant therapy should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior. Families and caregivers should be advised of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber. Nefazodone hydrochloride tablets are not approved for use in pediatric patients. (See WARNINGS, Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk; PRECAUTIONS, Information for Patients; and PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use.)
Cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with nefazodone hydrochloride tablets. The reported rate in the United States is about 1 case of liver failure resulting in death or transplant per 250,000 to 300,000 patient-years of nefazodone hydrochloride treatment. The total patient-years is a summation of each patient’s duration of exposure expressed in years. For example, 1 patient-year is equal to 2 patients each treated for 6 months, 3 patients each treated for 4 months, etc. (See WARNINGS.)
Ordinarily, treatment with nefazodone hydrochloride tablets should not be initiated in individuals with active liver disease or with elevated baseline serum transaminases. There is no evidence that pre-existing liver disease increases the likelihood of developing liver failure, however, baseline abnormalities can complicate patient monitoring.
Patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur.
Nefazodone hydrochloride tablets should be discontinued if clinical signs or symptoms suggest liver failure (see PRECAUTIONS, Information for Patients). Patients who develop evidence of hepatocellular injury such as increased serum AST or serum ALT levels ≥ 3 times the upper limit of NORMAL, while on nefazodone hydrochloride tablets should be withdrawn from the drug. These patients should be presumed to be at increased risk for liver injury if nefazodone hydrochloride is reintroduced. Accordingly, such patients should not be considered for re-treatment.
Nefazodone hydrochloride tablets, USP is an antidepressant for oral administration with a chemical structure unrelated to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, tricyclics, tetracyclics, or monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI).
Nefazodone hydrochloride, USP is a synthetically derived phenylpiperazine antidepressant. The chemical name for nefazodone hydrochloride is 2-[3-[4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl]propyl]-5-ethyl-2,4-dihydro-4-(2-phenoxyethyl)-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one monohydrochloride. The molecular formula is C 25 H32 ClN5 O2 • HCl, which corresponds to a molecular weight of 506.5. The structural formula is:
Nefazodone hydrochloride tablets, USP is supplied as uncoated round tablets containing either 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, 200 mg, or 250 mg of nefazodone hydrochloride, USP and the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, ferric oxide (red and/or yellow) as colorants for (50 mg, 150 mg, and 200 mg strengths only), magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone and sodium starch glycolate.
Nefazodone occupies central 5-HT 2 receptors at nanomolar concentrations, and acts as an antagonist at this receptor. Nefazodone was shown to antagonize alpha1 -adrenergic receptors, a property which may be associated with postural hypotension. In vitro binding studies showed that nefazodone had no significant affinity for the following receptors: alpha2 and beta adrenergic, 5-HT1A , cholinergic, dopaminergic, or benzodiazepine.
Nefazodone hydrochloride is rapidly and completely absorbed but is subject to extensive metabolism, so that its absolute bioavailability is low, about 20%, and variable. Peak plasma concentrations occur at about one hour and the half-life of nefazodone is 2 to 4 hours.
Both nefazodone and its pharmacologically similar metabolite, hydroxynefazodone, exhibit nonlinear kinetics for both dose and time, with AUC and C max increasing more than proportionally with dose increases and more than expected upon multiple dosing over time, compared to single dosing. For example, in a multiple-dose study involving BID dosing with 50, 100, and 200 mg, the AUC for nefazodone and hydroxynefazodone increased by about 4-fold with an increase in dose from 200 to 400 mg per day; Cmax increased by about 3-fold with the same dose increase. In a multiple-dose study involving BID dosing with 25, 50, 100, and 150 mg, the accumulation ratios for nefazodone and hydroxynefazodone AUC, after 5 days of BID dosing relative to the first dose, ranged from approximately 3 to 4 at the lower doses (50 to 100 mg/day) and from 5 to 7 at the higher doses (200 to 300 mg/day); there were also approximately 2- to 4-fold increases in Cmax after 5 days of BID dosing relative to the first dose, suggesting extensive and greater than predicted accumulation of nefazodone and its hydroxy metabolite with multiple dosing. Steady-state plasma nefazodone and metabolite concentrations are attained within 4 to 5 days of initiation of BID dosing or upon dose increase or decrease.
Nefazodone is extensively metabolized after oral administration by n-dealkylation and aliphatic and aromatic hydroxylation, and less than 1% of administered nefazodone is excreted unchanged in urine. Attempts to characterize three metabolites identified in plasma, hydroxynefazodone (HO-NEF), meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), and a triazole-dione metabolite, have been carried out. The AUC (expressed as a multiple of the AUC for nefazodone dosed at 100 mg BID) and elimination half-lives for these three metabolites were as follows:
|AUC Multiples and T½ for Three Metabolites of Nefazodone (100 mg BID)|
|Metabolite||AUC Multiples||T ½|
|HO-NEF||0.4||1.5 to 4 h|
|mCPP||0.07||4 to 8 h|
HO-NEF possesses a pharmacological profile qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that of nefazodone. mCPP has some similarities to nefazodone, but also has agonist activity at some serotonergic receptor subtypes. The pharmacological profile of the triazole-dione metabolite has not yet been well characterized. In addition to the above compounds, several other metabolites were present in plasma but have not been tested for pharmacological activity.
After oral administration of radiolabeled nefazodone, the mean half-life of total label ranged between 11 and 24 hours. Approximately 55% of the administered radioactivity was detected in urine and about 20 to 30% in feces.
Protein Binding —At concentrations of 25 to 2500 ng/mL nefazodone is extensively (> 99%) bound to human plasma proteins in vitro. The administration of 200 mg BID of nefazodone for 1 week did not increase the fraction of unbound warfarin in subjects whose prothrombin times had been prolonged by warfarin therapy to 120 to 150% of the laboratory control (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions). While nefazodone did not alter the in vitro protein binding of chlorpromazine, desipramine, diazepam, diphenylhydantoin, lidocaine, prazosin, propranolol, or verapamil, it is unknown whether displacement of either nefazodone or these drugs occurs in vivo. There was a 5% decrease in the protein binding of haloperidol; this is probably of no clinical significance.
Renal Disease —In studies involving 29 renally impaired patients, renal impairment (creatinine clearances ranging from 7 to 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2) had no effect on steady-state nefazodone plasma concentrations.
Liver Disease —In a multiple-dose study of patients with liver cirrhosis, the AUC values for nefazodone and HO-NEF at steady state were approximately 25% greater than those observed in normal volunteers.
Age/Gender Effects —After single doses of 300 mg to younger (18 to 45 years) and older patients (> 65 years), C max and AUC for nefazodone and hydroxynefazodone were up to twice as high in the older patients. With multiple doses, however, differences were much smaller, 10 to 20%. A similar result was seen for gender, with a higher Cmax and AUC in women after single doses but no difference after multiple doses.
Treatment with nefazodone should be initiated at half the usual dose in elderly patients, especially women (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION), but the therapeutic dose range is similar in younger and older patients.
During its premarketing development, the efficacy of nefazodone was evaluated at doses within the therapeutic range in five well-controlled, short-term (6 to 8 weeks’) clinical investigations. These trials enrolled outpatients meeting DSM-III or DSM-IIIR criteria for major depression. Among these trials, two demonstrated the effectiveness of nefazodone, and two provided additional support for that conclusion.
One trial was a 6-week dose-titration study comparing nefazodone in two dose ranges (up to 300 mg/day and up to 600 mg/day [mean modal dose for this group was about 400 mg/day], on a BID schedule) and placebo. The second trial was an 8-week dose-titration study comparing nefazodone (up to 600 mg/day; mean modal dose was 375 mg/day), imipramine (up to 300 mg/day), and placebo, all on a BID schedule. Both studies demonstrated nefazodone, at doses titrated between 300 mg to 600 mg/day (therapeutic dose range), to be superior to placebo on at least three of the following four measures: 17-Item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale or HDRS (total score), Hamilton Depressed Mood item, Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) Severity score, and CGI Improvement score. Significant differences were also found for certain factors of the HDRS (e.g., anxiety factor, sleep disturbance factor, and retardation factor). In the two supportive studies, nefazodone was titrated up to 500 or 600 mg/day (mean modal doses of 462 mg/day and 363 mg/day). In the fifth study, the differentiation in response rates between nefazodone and placebo was not statistically significant. Three additional trials were conducted using subtherapeutic doses of nefazodone.
Overall, approximately two thirds of patients in these trials were women, and an analysis of the effects of gender on outcome did not suggest any differential responsiveness on the basis of sex. There were too few elderly patients in these trials to reveal possible age-related differences in response.
Since its initial marketing as an antidepressant drug product, additional clinical investigations of nefazodone have been conducted. These studies explored nefazodone’s use under conditions not evaluated fully at the time initial marketing approval was granted.
Two studies were conducted to evaluate nefazodone’s effectiveness in hospitalized depressed patients. These were 6-week, dose-titration trials comparing nefazodone (up to 600 mg/day) and placebo, on a BID schedule. In one study, nefazodone was superior to placebo. In this study, the mean modal dose of nefazodone was 503 mg/day, and 85% of these inpatients were melancholic; at baseline, patients were distributed at the higher end of the 7-point CGI Severity scale, as follows: 4= moderately ill (17%); 5 = markedly ill (48%); 6 = severely ill (32%). In the other study, the differentiation in response rates between nefazodone and placebo was not statistically significant.This result may be explained by the “high” rate of spontaneous improvement among the patients randomized to placebo.
Two studies were conducted to assess nefazodone’s capacity to maintain a clinical remission in acutely depressed patients who were judged to have responded adequately (HDRS total score ≤ 10) after a 16-week period of open treatment with nefazodone (titration up to 600 mg/day). In one study, nefazodone was superior to placebo. In this study, patients (n = 131) were randomized to continuation on nefazodone or placebo for an additional 36 weeks (1 year total). This study demonstrated a significantly lower relapse rate (HDRS total score ≤ 18) for patients taking nefazodone compared to those on placebo. The second study was of appropriate design and power, but the sample of patients admitted for evaluation did not suffer relapses at a high enough incidence to provide a meaningful test of nefazodone’s efficacy for this use.
Highly variable results have been seen in the clinical development of all antidepressant drugs. Furthermore, in those circumstances when the drugs have not been studied in the same controlled clinical trial(s), comparisons among the findings of studies evaluating the effectiveness of different antidepressant drug products are inherently unreliable. Because conditions of testing (e.g., patient samples, investigators, doses of the treatments administered and compared, outcome measures, etc.) vary among trials, it is virtually impossible to distinguish a difference in drug effect from a difference due to one or more of the confounding factors just enumerated.
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