Like other slow-channel blockers, nifedipine exerts a negative inotropic effect on isolated myocardial tissue. This is rarely, if ever, seen in intact animals or man, probably because of reflex responses to its vasodilating effects. In man, nifedipine decreases peripheral vascular resistance which leads to a fall in systolic and diastolic pressures, usually minimal in normotensive volunteers (less than 5 to 10 mmHg systolic), but sometimes larger. With nifedipine extended-release tablets, these decreases in blood pressure are not accompanied by any significant change in heart rate. Hemodynamic studies of the immediate-release nifedipine formulation in patients with normal ventricular function have generally found a small increase in cardiac index without major effects on ejection fraction, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), or volume (LVEDV). In patients with impaired ventricular function, most acute studies have shown some increase in ejection fraction and reduction in left ventricular filling pressure.
Although, like other members of its class, nifedipine causes a slight depression of sinoatrial node function and atrioventricular conduction in isolated myocardial preparations, such effects have not been seen in studies in intact animals or in man. In formal electrophysiologic studies, predominantly in patients with normal conduction systems, nifedipine administered as the immediate-release capsule has had no tendency to prolong atrioventricular conduction or sinus node recovery time, or to slow sinus rate.
Nifedipine Indications and Usage
Nifedipine extended-release tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension. It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.
Concomitant administration with strong P450 inducers, such as rifampin, are contraindicated since the efficacy of nifedipine tablets could be significantly reduced. (See .) PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions
Nifedipine must not be used in cases of cardiogenic shock.
Nifedipine extended-release tablets are contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to any component of the tablet.
Although in most patients the hypotensive effect of nifedipine is modest and well tolerated, occasional patients have had excessive and poorly tolerated hypotension. These responses have usually occurred during initial titration or at the time of subsequent upward dosage adjustment, and may be more likely in patients using concomitant beta-blockers.
Severe hypotension and/or increased fluid volume requirements have been reported in patients who received immediate- release capsules together with a beta-blocking agent and who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery using high-dose fentanyl anesthesia. The interaction with high-dose fentanyl appears to be due to the combination of nifedipine and a beta-blocker, but the possibility that it may occur with nifedipine alone, with low doses of fentanyl, in other surgical procedures, or with other narcotic analgesics cannot be ruled out. In nifedipine-treated patients where surgery using high-dose fentanyl anesthesia is contemplated, the physician should be aware of these potential problems and, if the patient’s condition permits, sufficient time (at least 36 hours) should be allowed for nifedipine to be washed out of the body prior to surgery.
Rarely, patients, particularly those who have severe obstructive coronary artery disease, have developed well-documented increased frequency, duration, and/or severity of angina or acute myocardial infarction upon starting nifedipine or at the time of dosage increase. The mechanism of this effect is not established.
When discontinuing a beta-blocker, it is important to taper its dose, if possible, rather than stopping abruptly before beginning nifedipine. Patients recently withdrawn from beta-blockers may develop a withdrawal syndrome with increased angina, probably related to increased sensitivity to catecholamines. Initiation of nifedipine treatment will not prevent this occurrence and on occasion has been reported to increase it.
Rarely, patients (usually while receiving a beta-blocker) have developed heart failure after beginning nifedipine. Patients with tight aortic stenosis may be at greater risk for such an event, as the unloading effect of nifedipine would be expected to be of less benefit to these patients, owing to their fixed impedance to flow across the aortic valve.
Because nifedipine decreases peripheral vascular resistance, careful monitoring of blood pressure during the initial administration and titration of nifedipine extended-release tablets is suggested. Close observation is especially recommended for patients already taking medications that are known to lower blood pressure (see ). WARNINGS
Mild to moderate peripheral edema occurs in a dose-dependent manner with nifedipine extended-release tablets. The placebo subtracted rate is approximately 8% at 30 mg, 12% at 60 mg, and 19% at 90 mg daily. This edema is a localized phenomenon, thought to be associated with vasodilation of dependent arterioles and small blood vessels and not due to left ventricular dysfunction or generalized fluid retention. With patients whose hypertension is complicated by congestive heart failure, care should be taken to differentiate this peripheral edema from the effects of increasing left ventricular dysfunction.
Clearance of nifedipine is reduced and systemic exposure increased in patients with cirrhosis. It is unknown how systemic exposure may be altered in patients with moderate or severe liver impairment. Careful monitoring and dose reduction may be necessary; consider initiating therapy with the lowest dose available.
Nifedipine extended-release tablets are an extended-release tablet and should be swallowed whole and taken on an empty stomach. It should not be administered with food. Do not chew, divide, or crush tablets.
Rare, usually transient, but occasionally significant elevations of enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, CPK, LDH, SGOT and SGPT have been noted. The relationship to nifedipine therapy is uncertain in most cases, but probable in some. These laboratory abnormalities have rarely been associated with clinical symptoms; however, cholestasis with or without jaundice has been reported. A small increase (<5%) in mean alkaline phosphatase was noted in patients treated with nifedipine extended-release tablets. This was an isolated finding, and it rarely resulted in values which fell outside the normal range. Rare instances of allergic hepatitis have been reported with nifedipine treatment. In controlled studies, nifedipine extended-release tablets did not adversely affect serum uric acid, glucose, cholesterol or potassium.
Nifedipine, like other calcium channel blockers, decreases platelet aggregation . Limited clinical studies have demonstrated a moderate but statistically significant decrease in platelet aggregation and increase in bleeding time in some nifedipine patients. This is thought to be a function of inhibition of calcium transport across the platelet membrane. No clinical significance for these findings has been demonstrated. in vitro
Positive direct Coombs’ test, with or without hemolytic anemia, has been reported, but a causal relationship between nifedipine administration and positivity of this laboratory test, including hemolysis, could not be determined.
Although nifedipine has been used safely in patients with renal dysfunction and has been reported to exert a beneficial effect in certain cases, rare reversible elevations in BUN and serum creatinine have been reported in patients with pre-existing chronic renal insufficiency. The relationship to nifedipine therapy is uncertain in most cases but probable in some.
Nifedipine is mainly eliminated by metabolism and is a substrate of CYP3A. Inhibitors and inducers of CYP3A can impact the exposure to nifedipine and consequently its desirable and undesirable effects. and data indicate that nifedipine can inhibit the metabolism of drugs that are substrates of CYP3A, thereby increasing the exposure to other drugs. Nifedipine is a vasodilator, and coadministration of other drugs affecting blood pressure may result in pharmacodynamic interactions. In vitro in vivo
CYP3A inhibitors such as ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, clarithromycin, erythromycin (azithromycin, although structurally related to to the class of macrolide antibiotic, is void of clinically relevant CYP3A inhibition), grapefruit, nefazodone, fluoxetine, saquinavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, and ritonavir may result in increased exposure to nifedipine when coadministered. Careful monitoring and dose adjustment may be necessary; consider initiating nifedipine at the lowest dose available if given concomitantly with these medications.
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