Nitrofurantoin

NITROFURANTOIN- nitrofurantoin suspension
Actavis Pharma, Inc.

DESCRIPTION

Nitrofurantoin, USP, a synthetic chemical, is a stable, yellow, crystalline compound. Nitrofurantoin, USP is an antibacterial agent for specific urinary tract infections. Nitrofurantoin, USP is available in 25 mg/5 mL liquid suspension for oral administration.

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Inactive Ingredients

Nitrofurantoin Oral Suspension USP contains carboxymethylcellulose sodium, anhydrous citric acid, glycerin, magnesium aluminum silicate, methylparaben, natural and artificial flavor (peach), propylparaben, purified water, saccharin sodium, sodium citrate, and sorbitol solution.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Orally administered nitrofurantoin is readily absorbed and rapidly excreted in urine. Blood concentrations at therapeutic dosage are usually low. It is highly soluble in urine, to which it may impart a brown color.

Following a dose regimen of 100 mg q.i.d. (four times daily) for 7 days, average urinary drug recoveries (0 to 24 hours) on day 1 and day 7 were 42.7% and 43.6%.

Unlike many drugs, the presence of food or agents delaying gastric emptying can increase the bioavailability of nitrofurantoin, presumably by allowing better dissolution in gastric juices.

Microbiology

Mode of Action

Nitrofurantoin is reduced by a wide range of enzymes including bacterial flavoproteins to reactive intermediates which are damaging to macromolecules such as DNA and proteins.

Cross-Resistance

Although cross-resistance with other antimicrobials may occur, cross resistance with sulfonamides has not been observed.

Interaction with Other Antimicrobials

Antagonism has been demonstrated in vitro between nitrofurantoin and quinolone antimicrobial agents. Nitrofurantoin, in the form of nitrofurantoin oral suspension, has been shown to be active against most of the following bacteria both in vitro and in clinical infections: (See INDICATIONS AND USAGE).

Gram-positive Aerobes

Staphylococcus aureus

Enterococcus species

Gram-Negative Aerobes

Escherichia coli

NOTE: Some strains of Enterobacter species and Klebsiella species are resistant to nitrofurantoin.

The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown.

Nitrofurantoin exhibits in vitro activity against the following bacteria; however, the safety and effectiveness of nitrofurantoin in treating clinical infections due to these bacteria have not been established in adequate and well controlled clinical trials.

Gram-Positive Aerobes Coagulase -negative staphylococci (including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus)

Streptococcus agalactiae

Viridans group streptococci

Gram-Negative Aerobes

Citrobacter koseri

Citrobacter freundii

Klebsiella oxytoca

Nitrofurantoin is not active against most strains of Proteus species or Serratia species. It has no activity against Pseudomonas species.

Susceptibility Testing

For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Nitrofurantoin oral suspension is specifically indicated for the treatment of urinary tract infections when due to susceptible strains of Escherichia coli , enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus , and certain susceptible strains of Klebsiella and Enterobacter species.

Nitrofurantoin is not indicated for the treatment of pyelonephritis or perinephric abscesses.

Nitrofurantoins lack the broader tissue distribution of other therapeutic agents approved for urinary tract infections. Consequently, many patients who are treated with nitrofurantoin are predisposed to persistence or reappearance of bacteriuria. Urine specimens for culture and susceptibility testing should be obtained before and after completion of therapy. If persistence or reappearance of bacteriuria occurs after treatment with nitrofurantoin, other therapeutic agents with broader tissue distribution should be selected. In considering the use of nitrofurantoin, lower eradication rates should be balanced against the increased potential for systemic toxicity and for the development of antimicrobial resistance when agents with broader tissue distribution are utilized.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Anuria, oliguria, or significant impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine) are contraindications. Treatment of this type of patient carries an increased risk of toxicity because of impaired excretion of the drug.

Because of the possibility of hemolytic anemia due to immature erythrocyte enzyme systems (glutathione instability), the drug is contraindicated in pregnant patients at term (38 to 42 weeks gestation), during labor and delivery, or when the onset of labor is imminent. For the same reason, the drug is contraindicated in neonates under one month of age.

Nitrofurantoin is contraindicated in patients with a previous history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with nitrofurantoin. Nitrofurantoin is also contraindicated in those patients with known hypersensitivity to nitrofurantoin.

WARNINGS

Pulmonary Reactions

ACUTE, SUBACUTE, OR CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS HAVE BEEN OBSERVED IN PATIENTS TREATED WITH NITROFURANTOIN. IF THESE REACTIONS OCCUR, NITROFURANTOIN SHOULD BE DISCONTINUED AND APPROPRIATE MEASURES TAKEN. REPORTS HAVE CITED PULMONARY REACTIONS AS A CONTRIBUTING CAUSE OF DEATH.

CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS (DIFFUSE INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONITIS OR PULMONARY FIBROSIS, OR BOTH) CAN DEVELOP INSIDIOUSLY. THESE REACTIONS OCCUR RARELY AND GENERALLY IN PATIENTS RECEIVING THERAPY FOR SIX MONTHS OR LONGER. CLOSE MONITORING OF THE PULMONARY CONDITION OF PATIENTS RECEIVING LONG-TERM THERAPY IS WARRANTED AND REQUIRES THAT THE BENEFITS OF THERAPY BE WEIGHED AGAINST POTENTIAL RISKS. (See RESPIRATORY REACTIONS).

Hepatotoxicity

Hepatic reactions, including hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, chronic active hepatitis, and hepatic necrosis, occur rarely. Fatalities have been reported. The onset of chronic active hepatitis may be insidious, and patients should be monitored periodically for changes in biochemical tests that would indicate liver injury. If hepatitis occurs, the drug should be withdrawn immediately and appropriate measures should be taken.

Neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy, which may become severe or irreversible, has occurred. Fatalities have been reported. Conditions such as renal impairment (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine), anemia, diabetes mellitus, electrolyte imbalance, vitamin B deficiency, and debilitating disease may enhance the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy. Patients receiving long-term therapy should be monitored periodically for changes in renal function.

Optic neuritis has been reported rarely in postmarketing experience with nitrofurantoin formulations.

Hemolytic Anemia

Cases of hemolytic anemia of the primaquine-sensitivity type have been induced by nitrofurantoin. Hemolysis appears to be linked to a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the red blood cells of the affected patients. This deficiency is found in 10 percent of Blacks and a small percentage of ethnic groups of Mediterranean and Near-Eastern origin. Hemolysis is an indication for discontinuing nitrofurantoin; hemolysis ceases when the drug is withdrawn.

Clostridium Difficile-Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including nitrofurantoin oral suspension, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

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