NITROFURANTOIN MONO- nitrofurantoin and nitrofurantoin monohydrate capsule
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of nitrofurantoin monohydrate/macrocrystals capsules and other antibacterial drugs, nitrofurantoin monohydrate/macrocrystals capsules should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
Nitrofurantoin is an antibacterial agent specific for urinary tract infections. The nitrofurantoin monohydrate/macrocrystals capsules brand of nitrofurantoin is a hard gelatin capsule shell containing the equivalent of 100 mg of nitrofurantoin in the form of 25 mg of nitrofurantoin macrocrystals and 75 mg of nitrofurantoin monohydrate.
The chemical name of nitrofurantoin macrocrystals is 1-[[[5-nitro-2-furanyl]methylene] amino]-2,4-imidazolidinedione. The chemical structure is the following:
Molecular Weight: 238.16
The chemical name of nitrofurantoin monohydrate is 1-[[[5-nitro-2-furanyl]methylene] amino]-2,4- imidazolidinedione monohydrate. The chemical structure is the following:
Molecular Weight: 256.17
Inactive Ingredients: Each capsule contains carbomer 934P, corn starch, compressible sugar, D&C Yellow No. 10, edible gray ink, FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Red No. 40, gelatin, lactose, magnesium stearate, povidone, talc, and titanium dioxide.
FDA approved dissolution method differs from the current USP monograph dissolution methods.
Each nitrofurantoin monohydrate/macrocrystals capsule contains two forms of nitrofurantoin. Twenty-five percent is macrocrystalline nitrofurantoin, which has slower dissolution and absorption than nitrofurantoin monohydrate. The remaining 75% is nitrofurantoin monohydrate contained in a powder blend which, upon exposure to gastric and intestinal fluids, forms a gel matrix that releases nitrofurantoin over time. Based on urinary pharmacokinetic data, the extent and rate of urinary excretion of nitrofurantoin from the 100 mg nitrofurantoin monohydrate/macrocrystals capsule are similar to those of the 50 mg or 100 mg nitrofurantoin macrocrystals capsule. Approximately 20% to 25% of a single dose of nitrofurantoin is recovered from the urine unchanged over 24 hours.
Plasma nitrofurantoin concentrations after a single oral dose of the 100 mg nitrofurantoin monohydrate/macrocrystals capsules are low, with peak levels usually less than 1 mcg/mL. Nitrofurantoin is highly soluble in urine, to which it may impart a brown color. When nitrofurantoin monohydrate/macrocrystals capsules are administered with food, the bioavailability of nitrofurantoin is increased by approximately 40%.
Nitrofurantoin is a nitrofuran antimicrobial agent with activity against certain Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
The mechanism of the antimicrobial action of nitrofurantoin is unusual among antibacterials. Nitrofurantoin is reduced by bacterial flavoproteins to reactive intermediates which inactivate or alter bacterial ribosomal proteins and other macromolecules. As a result of such inactivations, the vital biochemical processes of protein synthesis, aerobic energy metabolism, DNA synthesis, RNA synthesis, and cell wall synthesis are inhibited. Nitrofurantoin is bactericidal in urine at therapeutic doses. The broad-based nature of this mode of action may explain the lack of acquired bacterial resistance to nitrofurantoin, as the necessary multiple and simultaneous mutations of the target macromolecules would likely be lethal to the bacteria.
Antagonism has been demonstrated in vitro between nitrofurantoin and quinolone antimicrobials. The clinical significance of this finding is unknown.
Development of resistance to nitrofurantoin has not been a significant problem since its introduction in 1953. Cross-resistance with antibiotics and sulfonamides has not been observed, and transferable resistance is, at most, a very rare phenomenon.
Nitrofurantoin has been shown to be active against most strains of the following bacteria both in vitro and in clinical infections (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE).
At least 90 percent of the following microorganisms exhibit an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than or equal to the susceptible breakpoint for nitrofurantoin. However, the efficacy of nitrofurantoin in treating clinical infections due to these microorganisms has not been established in adequate and well-controlled trials.
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (including Staphylococcus epidermidis)
Group D streptococci
Viridans group streptococci
Nitrofurantoin is not active against most strains of Proteus species or Serratia species. It has no activity against Pseudomonas species.
For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.
Nitrofurantoin monohydrate/macrocrystals capsules are indicated only for the treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections (acute cystitis) caused by susceptible strains of Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus saprophyticus.
Nitrofurantoin is not indicated for the treatment of pyelonephritis or perinephric abscesses.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of nitrofurantoin monohydrate/macrocrystals capsules and other antibacterial drugs, nitrofurantoin monohydrate/macrocrystals capsules should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Nitrofurantoins lack the broader tissue distribution of other therapeutic agents approved for urinary tract infections. Consequently, many patients who are treated with nitrofurantoin monohydrate/macrocrystals capsules are predisposed to persistence or reappearance of bacteriuria. (See CLINICAL STUDIES.) Urine specimens for culture and susceptibility testing should be obtained before and after completion of therapy. If persistence or reappearance of bacteriuria occurs after treatment with nitrofurantoin monohydrate/macrocrystals capsules, other therapeutic agents with broader tissue distribution should be selected. In considering the use of nitrofurantoin monohydrate/macrocrystals capsules, lower eradication rates should be balanced against the increased potential for systemic toxicity and for the development of antimicrobial resistance when agents with broader tissue distribution are utilized.
Anuria, oliguria, or significant impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine) are contraindications. Treatment of this type of patient carries an increased risk of toxicity because of impaired excretion of the drug.
Because of the possibility of hemolytic anemia due to immature erythrocyte enzyme systems (glutathione instability), the drug is contraindicated in pregnant patients at term (38 to 42 weeks gestation), during labor and delivery, or when the onset of labor is imminent. For the same reason, the drug is contraindicated in neonates under one month of age.
Nitrofurantoin monohydrate/macrocrystals capsules are contraindicated in patients with a previous history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with nitrofurantoin.
Nitrofurantoin monohydrate/macrocrystals capsules are also contraindicated in those patients with known hypersensitivity to nitrofurantoin.
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