Most of the vinca alkaloids (e.g., vincristine and vinblastine) are substrates of CYP3A4. Concomitant administration of azole antifungals, including Noxafil, with vincristine has been associated with serious adverse reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]. Posaconazole may increase the plasma concentrations of vinca alkaloids which may lead to neurotoxicity and other serious adverse reactions. Therefore, reserve azole antifungals, including Noxafil, for patients receiving a vinca alkaloid, including vincristine, who have no alternative antifungal treatment options.
Posaconazole may increase the plasma concentrations of calcium channel blockers metabolized by CYP3A4 (e.g., verapamil, diltiazem, nifedipine, nicardipine, felodipine). Frequent monitoring for adverse reactions and toxicity related to calcium channel blockers is recommended during coadministration. Dose reduction of calcium channel blockers may be needed.
Increased plasma concentrations of digoxin have been reported in patients receiving digoxin and posaconazole. Therefore, monitoring of digoxin plasma concentrations is recommended during coadministration.
Posaconazole Delayed-Release Tablet:
Concomitant administration of metoclopramide with posaconazole delayed-release tablets did not affect the pharmacokinetics of posaconazole [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. No dosage adjustment of posaconazole delayed-release tablets is required when given concomitantly with metoclopramide.
Posaconazole Oral Suspension:
Metoclopramide, when given with posaconazole oral suspension, decreases posaconazole plasma concentrations [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. If metoclopramide is concomitantly administered with posaconazole oral suspension, it is recommended to closely monitor for breakthrough fungal infections.
Loperamide does not affect posaconazole plasma concentrations after posaconazole oral suspension administration [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. No dosage adjustment of posaconazole is required when loperamide and posaconazole are used concomitantly.
Although no dosage adjustment of glipizide is required, it is recommended to monitor glucose concentrations when posaconazole and glipizide are concomitantly used.
Based on findings from animal data, Noxafil may cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women. Available data for use of Noxafil in pregnant women are insufficient to establish a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. In animal reproduction studies, skeletal malformations (cranial malformations and missing ribs) and maternal toxicity (reduced food consumption and reduced body weight gain) were observed when posaconazole was dosed orally to pregnant rats during organogenesis at doses ≥1.4 times the 400 mg twice daily oral suspension regimen based on steady-state plasma concentrations of Noxafil in healthy volunteers. In pregnant rabbits dosed orally during organogenesis, increased resorptions, reduced litter size, and reduced body weight gain of females were seen at doses 5 times the exposure achieved with the 400 mg twice daily oral suspension regimen. Doses of ≥ 3 times the clinical exposure caused an increase in resorptions in these rabbits (see Data). Based on animal data, advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Posaconazole resulted in maternal toxicity (reduced food consumption and reduced body weight gain) and skeletal malformations (cranial malformations and missing ribs) when given orally to pregnant rats during organogenesis (Gestational Days 6 through 15) at doses ≥27 mg/kg (≥1.4 times the 400 mg twice daily oral suspension regimen based on steady-state plasma concentrations of drug in healthy volunteers). The no-effect dose for malformations and maternal toxicity in rats was 9 mg/kg, which is 0.7 times the exposure achieved with the 400 mg twice daily oral suspension regimen. No malformations were seen in rabbits dosed during organogenesis (Gestational Days 7 through 19) at doses up to 80 mg/kg (5 times the exposure achieved with the 400 mg twice daily oral suspension regimen). In the rabbit, the no-effect dose was 20 mg/kg, while high doses of 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg (3 or 5 times the clinical exposure) caused an increase in resorptions. In rabbits dosed at 80 mg/kg, a reduction in body weight gain of females and a reduction in litter size were seen.
There are no data on the presence of posaconazole in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Posaconazole is excreted in the milk of lactating rats. When a drug is present in animal milk, it is likely that the drug will be present in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for Noxafil and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from Noxafil or from the underlying maternal condition.
The safety and effectiveness of Noxafil injection in pediatric patients below the age of 18 years of age has not been established. Noxafil injection should not be used in pediatric patients because of nonclinical safety concerns [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)].
The safety and effectiveness of posaconazole oral suspension and posaconazole delayed-release tablets have been established in the age groups 13 to 17 years of age. Use of posaconazole in these age groups is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of posaconazole in adults. The safety and effectiveness of posaconazole in pediatric patients below the age of 13 years (birth to 12 years) have not been established.
A total of 12 patients 13 to 17 years of age received 600 mg/day (200 mg three times a day) of posaconazole oral suspension for prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections. The safety profile in these patients <18 years of age appears similar to the safety profile observed in adults. Based on pharmacokinetic data in 10 of these pediatric patients, the mean steady-state average posaconazole concentration (Cavg) was similar between these patients and adults (≥18 years of age). In a study of 136 neutropenic pediatric patients 11 months to less than 18 years treated with posaconazole oral suspension, the exposure target of steady-state posaconazole Cavg between 500 ng/mL and less than 2500 ng/mL was attained in approximately 50% of patients instead of the pre-specified 90% of patients.
Of the 279 patients treated with posaconazole injection, 52 (19%) were greater than 65 years of age. The pharmacokinetics of posaconazole injection are comparable in young and elderly subjects. No overall differences in safety were observed between the geriatric patients and younger patients; therefore, no dosage adjustment is recommended for Noxafil injection in geriatric patients.
Of the 230 patients treated with posaconazole delayed-release tablets, 38 (17%) were greater than 65 years of age. The pharmacokinetics of posaconazole delayed-release tablets are comparable in young and elderly subjects. No overall differences in safety were observed between the geriatric patients and younger patients; therefore, no dosage adjustment is recommended for geriatric patients.
Of the 605 patients randomized to posaconazole oral suspension in the prophylaxis clinical trials, 63 (10%) were ≥65 years of age. In addition, 48 patients treated with greater than or equal to 800-mg/day posaconazole in another indication were ≥65 years of age. No overall differences in safety were observed between the geriatric patients and younger patients.
The pharmacokinetics of posaconazole oral suspension are comparable in young and elderly subjects (≥65 years of age); therefore, no adjustment in the dosage of Noxafil oral suspension is necessary in geriatric patients.
No overall differences in the pharmacokinetics and safety were observed between elderly and young subjects during clinical trials, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
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