NYSTATIN AND TRIAMCINOLONE ACETONIDE — nystatin and triamcinolone acetonide ointment
Teligent Pharma, Inc.
FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR OPHTHALMIC USE.
Nystatin and Triamcinolone Acetonide Ointment for dermatologic use contain the antifungal agent nystatin and the synthetic corticosteroid triamcinolone acetonide.
Nystatin is a polyene antimycotic obtained from Streptomyces noursei. It is a yellow to light tan powder with a cereallike odor, very slightly soluble in water, and slightly to sparingly soluble in alcohol. Structural formula:
|C47 H75 NO17 MW = 926.13|
|Triamcinolone acetonide is designated chemically as 9-fluoro-11β, 16α, 17, 21-tetrahydroxypregna-1, 4-diene-3, 20-dione cyclic 16, 17-acetal with acetone. The white to cream crystalline powder has a slight odor, is practically insoluble in water, and very soluble in alcohol. Structural formula:|
|C24 H31 FO6 MW = 434.50|
Each gram of Nystatin and Triamcinolone Acetonide Ointment provides 100,000 USP Nystatin units and 1 mg Triamcinolone Acetonide in an ointment base of mineral oil and white petrolatum.
Nystatin exerts its antifungal activity against a variety of pathogenic and nonpathogenic yeasts and fungi by binding to sterols in the cell membrane. The binding process renders the cell membrane incapable of functioning as a selective barrier. Nystatin provides specific anticandidal activity to Candida (Monilia) albicans and other Candida species, but is not active against bacteria, protozoa, trichomonads, or viruses.
Nystatin is not absorbed from intact skin or mucous membranes.
Triamcinolone acetonide is primarily effective because of its anti-inflammatory, antipruritic and vasoconstrictive actions, characteristic of the topical corticosteroid class of drugs. The pharmacologic effects of the topical corticosteroids are well known; however, the mechanisms of their dermatologic actions are unclear. Various laboratory methods, including vasoconstrictor assays, are used to compare and predict potencies and/or clinical efficacies of the topical corticosteroids. There is some evidence to suggest that a recognizable correlation exists between vasoconstrictor potency and therapeutic efficacy in man.
The extent of percutaneous absorption of topical corticosteroids is determined by many factors including the vehicle, the integrity of the epidermal barrier, and the use of occlusive dressings (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Topical corticosteroids can be absorbed from normal intact skin. Inflammation and/or other disease processes in the skin increase percutaneous absorption. Occlusive dressings substantially increase the percutaneous absorption of topical corticosteroids (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Once absorbed through the skin, topical corticosteroids are handled through pharmacokinetic pathways similar to systemically administered corticosteroids. Corticosteroids are bound to plasma proteins in varying degrees. Corticosteroids are metabolized primarily in the liver and are then excreted by the kidneys. Some of the topical corticosteroids and their metabolites are also excreted into the bile.
During clinical studies of mild to severe manifestations of cutaneous candidiasis, patients treated with nystatin and triamcinolone acetonide showed a faster and more pronounced clearing of erythema and pruritus than patients treated with nystatin or triamcinolone acetonide alone.
Nystatin and Triamcinolone Acetonide Indications and Usage
Nystatin and Triamcinolone Acetonide Ointment is indicated for the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis; it has been demonstrated that the nystatin-steroid combination provides greater benefit than the nystatin component alone during the first few days of treatment.
These preparations are contraindicated in those patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any of their components.
Systemic absorption of topical corticosteroids has produced reversible hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression, manifestations of Cushing’s syndrome, hyperglycemia, and glucosuria in some patients. Conditions that augment systemic absorption include application of the more potent steroids, use over large surface areas, prolonged use, and the addition of occlusive dressings (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Therefore, patients receiving a large dose of any potent topical steroid applied to a large surface area should be evaluated periodically for evidence of HPA axis suppression by using the urinary free cortisol and ACTH stimulation tests, and for impairment of internal homeostasis. If HPA axis suppression or elevation of the body temperature occurs, an attempt should be made to withdraw the drug, to reduce the frequency of application, or substitute a less potent steroid.
Recovery of HPA axis function and thermal homeostasis are generally prompt and complete upon discontinuation of the drug. Infrequently, signs and symptoms of steroid withdrawal may occur, requiring supplemental systemic corticosteroids.
Children may absorb proportionally larger amounts of topical corticosteroids and thus be more susceptible to systemic toxicity (see PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use).
If irritation or hypersensitivity develops with the combination nystatin and triamcinolone acetonide, treatment should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.
Patients using this medication should receive the following information and instructions:
- This medication is to be used as directed by the physician. It is for external use only. Avoid contact with the eyes.
- Patients should be advised not to use this medication for any disorder other than for which it was prescribed.
- The treated skin area should not be bandaged or otherwise covered or wrapped as to be occluded (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
- Patients should report any signs of local adverse reactions.
- When using this medication in the inguinal area, patients should be advised to apply the ointment sparingly and to wear loose fitting clothing.
- Parents of pediatric patients should be advised not to use tight-fitting diapers or plastic pants on a child being treated in the diaper area, as these garments may constitute occlusive dressings.
- Patients should be advised on preventive measures to avoid reinfection.
If there is a lack of therapeutic response, appropriate microbiological studies (e.g. KOH smears and/or cultures) should be repeated to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other pathogens, before instituting another course of therapy.
A urinary free cortisol test and ACTH stimulation test may be helpful in evaluating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression due to corticosteroids.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility
Long-term animal studies have not been performed to evaluate carcinogenic or mutagenic potential, or possible impairment of fertility in males or females.
Pregnancy Category C
There are no teratogenic studies with combined nystatin and triamcinolone acetonide. Corticosteroids are generally teratogenic in laboratory animals when administered systemically at relatively low dosage levels. The more potent corticosteroids have been shown to be teratogenic after dermal application in laboratory animals. Therefore, any topical corticosteroid preparation should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Topical preparations containing corticosteroids should not be used extensively on pregnant patients, in large amounts, or for prolonged periods of time.
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