Cardiovascular manifestations in response to lidocaine are usually depressant and are characterized by bradycardia, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse, which may lead to cardiac arrest.In addition, the beta-adrenergic receptor-stimulating action of epinephrine may lead to excitatory cardiovascular responses, such as tachycardia, palpitations, and hypertension.
Signs and symptoms of depressed cardiovascular function may commonly result from a vasovagal reaction, particularly if the patient is in an upright position. Less commonly, they may result from a direct effect of the drug. Failure to recognize the premonitory signs such as sweating, a feeling of faintness, changes in pulse or sensorium may result in progressive cerebral hypoxia and seizure or serious cardiovascular catastrophe. Management consists of placing the patient in the recumbent position and ventilation with oxygen. Supportive treatment of circulatory depression may require the administration of intravenous fluids and, when appropriate, a vasopressor (e.g, ephedrine) as directed by the clinical situation.
Allergic reactions are characterized by cutaneous lesions, urticaria, edema, anaphylactoid reactions, or dyspnea due to bronchoconstriction. Allergic reactions as a result of sensitivity to lidocaine are extremely rare and, if they occur, should be managed by conventional means. The detection of sensitivity by skin testing is of doubtful value.
The incidences of adverse reactions (e.g., persistent neurologic deficit) associated with the use of local anesthetics may be related to the technique employed, the total dose of local anesthetic administered, the particular drug used, the route of administration, and the physical condition of the patient.
Persistent paresthesias of the lips, tongue, and oral tissues have been reported with the use of lidocaine, with slow, incomplete, or no recovery. These post-marketing events have been reported chiefly following nerve blocks in the mandible and have involved the trigeminal nerve and its branches.
Acute emergencies from local anesthetics are generally related to high plasma levels encountered during therapeutic use of local anesthetics or to unintended subarachnoid injection of local anesthetic solution (See ADVERSE REACTIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS).
The first consideration is prevention, best accomplished by careful and constant monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory vital signs and the patient’s state of consciousness after each local anesthetic injection. At the first sign of change, oxygen should be administered.
The first step in the management of convulsions consists of immediate attention to the maintenance of a patent airway and assisted or controlled ventilation with oxygen and a delivery system capable of permitting immediate positive airway pressure by mask.
Immediately after the institution of these ventilatory measures, the adequacy of the circulation should be evaluated, keeping in mind that drugs used to treat convulsions sometimes depress the circulation when administered intravenously. Should convulsions persist despite adequate respiratory support, and if the status of the circulation permits, small increments of an ultra-short acting barbiturate (such as thiopental or thiamylal) or a benzodiazepine (such as diazepam) may be administered intravenously. The clinician should be familiar, prior to use of local anesthetics, with these anticonvulsant drugs. Supportive treatment of clrculatory depression may require administration of intravenous fluids and, when appropriate, a vasopressor as directed by the clinical situation (e.g., ephedrine).
If not treated immediately, both convulsions and cardiovascular depression can result in hypoxia, acidosis, bradycardia, arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. If cardiac arrest should occur, standard cardio-pulmonary resuscitative measures should be instituted. Endotracheal intubation, employing drugs and techniques familiar to the clinician, may be indicated, after initial administration of oxygen by mask, if difficulty is encountered in the maintenance of a patent airway or if prolonged ventilatory support (assisted or controlled) is indicated.
Dialysis is of negligible value in the treatment of acute overdosage with lidocaine.
The intravenous LD50 of lidocaine HCI in female mice is 26 (21-31) mg/kg and the subcutaneous LD50 is 264 (203-304) mg /kg.
The dosage of Octocaine (Lidocaine and Epinephrine Injections, USP) depends on the physical status of the patient, the area of the oral cavity to be anesthetized, the vascularity of the oral tissues, and the technique of anesthesia used. The least volume of solution that results in effective local anesthesia should be administered; time should be allowed between injections to observe the patient for manifestations of an adverse reaction. For specific techniques and procedures of a local anesthesia in the oral cavity, refer to standard textbooks.
For most routine dental procedures, Octocaine (Lidocaine and Epinephrine 1:100,000) Injection is preferred. However, when greater depth and a more pronounced hemostasis are required, a 1:50,000 Epinephrine concentration should be used.
Dosage requirements should be determined on an individual basis. In oral infiltration and / or mandibular block, initial dosages of 1.0 — 5.0 mL (1/2 to 2.5 cartridges) of Octocaine Injections are usually effective.
In children under 10 years of age, it is rarely necessary to administer more than one-half cartridge (0.9-1.0 mL or 18-20 mg of lidocaine) per procedure to achieve local anesthesia for a procedure involving a single tooth. In maxillary infiltration, this amount will often suffice to the treatment of two or even three teeth. In the mandibular block, however, satisfactory anesthesia achieved with this amount of drug, will allow treatment of the teeth of an entire quadrant. Aspiration is recommended since it reduces the possibility of intravascular injection, thereby keeping the incidence of side effects and anesthetic failures to a minimum. Moreover, injection should always be made slowly.
Maximum recommended dosages for Lidocaine and Epinephrine Injections.
For normal healthy adults, the amount of lidocaine HCI administered should be kept below 500 mg, and in any case, should not exceed 7 mg/kg (3.2 mg/lb) of body weight.
Pediatric patients : It is difficult to recommend a maximum dose of any drug for pediatric patients since this varies as a function of age and weight. For pediatric patients of less than ten years who have a normal lean body mass and normal body development, the maximum dose may be determined by the application of one of the standard pediatric drug formulas (e.g., Clark’s rule). For example, in pediatric patients of five years weighing 50 Ibs, the dose of lidocaine hydrochloride should not exceed 75-100mg when calculated according to Clark’s rule. In any case, the maximum dose of lidocaine hydrochloride should not exceed 7 mg/kg (3.2 mg/lb) of body weight.
NOTE : Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever the solution and container permit. Solutions that are discolored and / or contain particulate matter should not be used and any unused portion of a cartridge of Octocaine Injections should be discarded.
- Octocaine (Lidocaine Hydrochloride 2% and Epinephrine 1:50,000) injection is available in cardboard boxes containing 5 blisters of 10 x 1.7 mL cartridges.
- Octocaine (Lidocaine Hydrochloride 2% and Epinephrine 1:100,000) injection is available in cardboard boxes containing 5 blisters of 10 x 1.7 mL cartridges.
Store at controlled room temperature, below 25°C (77°F). Protect from light. Do not permit to freeze.
BOXES : For protection from light, retain in box until time of use. Once opened, the box should be reclosed by closing the end flap.
Do not use if color is pinkish or darker than slightly yellow or if it contains a precipitate.
- Cartridges should not be autoclaved, because the closures employed cannot withstand autoclaving temperatures and pressures.
- If chemical disinfection of anesthetic cartridges is desired, either isopropyl alcohol (91%) or 70% ethyl alcohol is recommended. Many commercially available brands of rubbing alcohol, as well as solutions of ethyl alcohol not of U.S.P grade, contain denaturants that are injurious to rubber and, therefore, are not to be used. It is recommended that chemical disinfection be accomplished just prior to use by wiping the cartridge cap thoroughly with a pledge of cotton that has been moistened with recommended alcohol.
- Certain metallic ions (mercury, zinc, copper, etc.) have been related to swelling and edema after local anesthesia in dentistry. Therefore, chemical disinfectants containing or releasing these ions are not recommended. Antirust tablets usually contain sodium nitrite or some similar agents that may be capable of releasing metal ions. Because of this, aluminium sealed cartridges should not be kept in such solutions.
- Quaternary ammonium salts, such as benzalkonium chloride, are electrolytically incompatible with aluminium. Cartridges of Octocaine Injections are sealed with aluminium caps and therefore should not be immersed in any solution containing these salts.
- To avoid leakage of solutions during injection, be sure to penetrate the center of the rubber diaphragm when loading the syringe. An off-center penetration produces an oval shaped puncture that allows leakage around the needle.
Other causes of leakage and breakage include badly worn syringes, aspirating syringes with bent harpoons, the use of syringes not designed to take 1.7 mL cartridges, and inadvertent freezing.
- Cracking of glass cartridges is most often the result of an attempt to use a cartridge with an extruded plunger. An extruded plunger loses its lubrication and can be forced back into the cartridge only with difficulty. Cartridges with extruded plungers should be discarded.
- Store at controlled room temperature, below 25°C (77°F).
Manufactured by :
Novocol Pharmaceutical of Canada, Inc.
25 Wolseley Court
Made in Canada
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