Ofloxacin

OFLOXACIN- ofloxacin tablet, film coated
PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

WARNING

Fluoroquinolones, including ofloxacin, are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages. This risk is further increased in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants (see WARNINGS).

Fluoroquinolones, including ofloxacin, may exacerbate muscle weakness in persons with myasthenia gravis. Avoid ofloxacin in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis (see WARNINGS).

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ofloxacin tablets and other antibacterial drugs, ofloxacin tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

DESCRIPTION

Ofloxacin tablets are a synthetic broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent for oral administration. Chemically, ofloxacin, USP, a fluorinated carboxyquinolone, is the racemate, (±)-9-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-10-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-7-oxo-7 H -pyrido[1,2,3- de ]-1,4-benzoxazine-6-carboxylic acid. The chemical structure is:

Chemical Structure

C 18 H 20 FN 3 O 4 M.W. 361.4

Ofloxacin, USP is an off-white to pale yellow crystalline powder. The molecule exists as a zwitterion at the pH conditions in the small intestine. The relative solubility characteristics of ofloxacin, USP at room temperature, as defined by USP nomenclature, indicate that ofloxacin, USP is considered to be soluble in aqueous solutions with pH between 2 and 5. It is sparingly to slightly soluble in aqueous solutions with pH 7 (solubility falls to 4 mg/mL) and freely soluble in aqueous solutions with pH above 9. Ofloxacin, USP has the potential to form stable coordination compounds with many metal ions. This in vitro chelation potential has the following formation order: Fe +3 > Al +3 > Cu +2 > Ni +2 > Pb +2 > Zn +2 > Mg +2 > Ca +2 > Ba +2.

Ofloxacin tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: corn starch, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, lactose anhydrous, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol 400, polysorbate 80, sodium starch glycolate, and titanium dioxide. Additionally, the 200 mg tablets contain iron oxide yellow and the 400 mg tablets contain iron oxide yellow and iron oxide red.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Following oral administration, the bioavailability of ofloxacin in the tablet formulation is approximately 98%. Maximum serum concentrations are achieved one to two hours after an oral dose. Absorption of ofloxacin after single or multiple doses of 200 to 400 mg is predictable, and the amount of drug absorbed increases proportionately with the dose. Ofloxacin has biphasic elimination. Following multiple oral doses at steady-state administration, the half-lives are approximately 4 to 5 hours and 20 to 25 hours. However, the longer half-life represents less than 5% of the total AUC. Accumulation at steady-state can be estimated using a half-life of 9 hours. The total clearance and volume of distribution are approximately similar after single or multiple doses. Elimination is mainly by renal excretion. The following are mean peak serum concentrations in healthy 70 to 80 kg male volunteers after single oral doses of 200, 300, or 400 mg of ofloxacin or after multiple oral doses of 400 mg.

Oral Dose Serum Concentration 2 Hours After Admin. (mcg/mL) Area Under the Curve (AUC (0 to ∞) ) (mcg•h/mL)
200 mg single dose1.514.1
300 mg single dose2.421.2
400 mg single dose2.931.4
400 mg steady-state4.661

Steady-state concentrations were attained after four oral doses, and the area under the curve (AUC) was approximately 40% higher than the AUC after single doses. Therefore, after multiple-dose administration of 200 mg and 300 mg doses, peak serum levels of 2.2 mcg/mL and 3.6 mcg/mL, respectively, are predicted at steady-state.

In vitro , approximately 32% of the drug in plasma is protein bound.

The single dose and steady-state plasma profiles of ofloxacin injection were comparable in extent of exposure (AUC) to those of ofloxacin tablets when the injectable and tablet formulations of ofloxacin were administered in equal doses (mg/mg) to the same group of subjects. The mean steady-state AUC (0 to 12) attained after the intravenous administration of 400 mg over 60 min was 43.5 mcg•h/mL; the mean steady-state AUC (0 to 12) attained after the oral administration of 400 mg was 41.2 mcg•h/mL (two one-sided t-test, 90% confidence interval was 103 to 109) (see following chart).

Figure 1
(click image for full-size original)

Between 0 and 6 h following the administration of a single 200 mg oral dose of ofloxacin to 12 healthy volunteers, the average urine ofloxacin concentration was approximately 220 mcg/mL. Between 12 and 24 hours after administration, the average urine ofloxacin level was approximately 34 mcg/mL.

Following oral administration of recommended therapeutic doses, ofloxacin has been detected in blister fluid, cervix, lung tissue, ovary, prostatic fluid, prostatic tissue, skin, and sputum. The mean concentration of ofloxacin in each of these various body fluids and tissues after one or more doses was 0.8 to 1.5 times the concurrent plasma level. Inadequate data are presently available on the distribution or levels of ofloxacin in the cerebrospinal fluid or brain tissue.

Ofloxacin has a pyridobenzoxazine ring that appears to decrease the extent of parent compound metabolism. Between 65% and 80% of an administered oral dose of ofloxacin is excreted unchanged via the kidneys within 48 hours of dosing. Studies indicate that less than 5% of an administered dose is recovered in the urine as the desmethyl or N-oxide metabolites. Four to eight percent of an ofloxacin dose is excreted in the feces. This indicates a small degree of biliary excretion of ofloxacin.

The administration of ofloxacin tablets with food does not affect the C max and AUC of the drug, but T max is prolonged.

Clearance of ofloxacin is reduced in patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance rate ≤ 50 mL/min), and dosage adjustment is necessary (see PRECAUTIONS , General and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Following oral administration to healthy elderly subjects (65 to 81 years of age), maximum plasma concentrations are usually achieved one to two hours after single and multiple twice-daily doses, indicating that the rate of oral absorption is unaffected by age or gender. Mean peak plasma concentrations in elderly subjects were 9 to 21% higher than those observed in younger subjects. Gender differences in the pharmacokinetic properties of elderly subjects have been observed. Peak plasma concentrations were 114% and 54% higher in elderly females compared to elderly males following single and multiple twice-daily doses. [This interpretation was based on study results collected from two separate studies.] Plasma concentrations increase dose-dependently with the increase in doses after single oral dose and at steady-state. No differences were observed in the volume of distribution values between elderly and younger subjects. As in younger subjects, elimination is mainly by renal excretion as unchanged drug in elderly subjects, although less drug is recovered from renal excretion in elderly subjects. Consistent with younger subjects, less than 5% of an administered dose was recovered in the urine as the desmethyl and N-oxide metabolites in the elderly. A longer plasma half-life of approximately 6.4 to 7.4 hours was observed in elderly subjects, compared with 4 to 5 hours for young subjects. Slower elimination of ofloxacin is observed in elderly subjects as compared with younger subjects which may be attributable to the reduced renal function and renal clearance observed in the elderly subjects. Because ofloxacin is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, dosage adjustment is necessary for elderly patients with impaired renal function as recommended for all patients (see PRECAUTIONS , General and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

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