OLANZAPINE — olanzapine tablet
Ascend Laboratories, LLC
Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Analyses of seventeen placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug-treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group. Although the causes of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies may be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.14) and Patient Counseling Information (17.2)]. When using olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination, also refer to the Boxed Warning section of the package insert for Symbyax
Oral olanzapine is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia. Efficacy was established in three clinical trials in adult patients with schizophrenia: two 6-week trials and one maintenance trial. In adolescent patients with schizophrenia (ages 13 to 17), efficacy was established in one 6-week trial. [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].When deciding among the alternative treatments available for adolescents, clinicians should consider the increased potential (in adolescents as compared with adults) for weight gain and hyperlipidemia. Clinicians should consider the potential long-term risks when prescribing to adolescents, and in many cases this may lead them to consider prescribing other drugs first in adolescents [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Monotherapy — Oral olanzapine is indicated for the acute treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder and maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder. Efficacy was established in three clinical trials in adult patients with manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder: two 3- to 4-week trials and one monotherapy maintenance trial. In adolescent patients with manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder (ages 13 to 17), efficacy was established in one 3-week trial [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].
When deciding among the alternative treatments available for adolescents, clinicians should consider the increased potential (in adolescents as compared with adults) for weight gain and hyperlipidemia. Clinicians should consider the potential long-term risks when prescribing to adolescents, and in many cases this may lead them to consider prescribing other drugs first in adolescents [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Adjunctive Therapy to Lithium or Valproate — Oral olanzapine is indicated for the treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder as an adjunct to lithium or valproate. Efficacy was established in two 6-week clinical trials in adults. The effectiveness of adjunctive therapy for longer-term use has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].
Pediatric schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder are serious mental disorders; however, diagnosis can be challenging. For pediatric schizophrenia, symptom profiles can be variable, and for bipolar I disorder, pediatric patients may have variable patterns of periodicity of manic or mixed symptoms. It is recommended that medication therapy for pediatric schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder be initiated only after a thorough diagnostic evaluation has been performed and careful consideration given to the risks associated with medication treatment. Medication treatment for both pediatric schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder should be part of a total treatment program that often includes psychological, educational and social interventions.
Olanzapine IntraMuscular is indicated for the treatment of acute agitation associated with schizophrenia and bipolar I mania.
Efficacy was demonstrated in 3 short-term (24 hours of IM treatment) placebo-controlled trials in agitated adult inpatients with: schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episodes) [see Clinical Studies (14.3)].
“Psychomotor agitation” is defined in DSM-IV as “excessive motor activity associated with a feeling of inner tension.” Patients experiencing agitation often manifest behaviors that interfere with their diagnosis and care, e.g., threatening behaviors, escalating or urgently distressing behavior, or selfexhausting behavior, leading clinicians to the use of intramuscular antipsychotic medications to achieve immediate control of the agitation.
1.5 Olanzapine and Fluoxetine in Combination: Depressive Episodes Associated with Bipolar I Disorder
Oral olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination is indicated for the treatment of depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder, based on clinical studies.
When using olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination, refer to the Clinical Studies section of the package insert for Symbyax.
Olanzapine monotherapy is not indicated for the treatment of depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder.
Dose Selection— Oral olanzapine should be administered on a once-a-day schedule without regard to meals, generally beginning with 5 to 10 mg initially, with a target dose of 10 mg/day within several days. Further dosage adjustments, if indicated, should generally occur at intervals of not less than 1 week, since steady state for olanzapine would not be achieved for approximately 1 week in the typical patient. When dosage adjustments are necessary, dose increments/decrements of 5 mg QD are recommended.
Efficacy in schizophrenia was demonstrated in a dose range of 10 to 15 mg/day in clinical trials. However, doses above 10 mg/day were not demonstrated to be more efficacious than the 10 mg/day dose. An increase to a dose greater than the target dose of 10 mg/day (i.e., to a dose of 15 mg/day or greater) is recommended only after clinical assessment. Olanzapine is not indicated for use in doses above 20 mg/day.
Dosing in Special Populations — The recommended starting dose is 5 mg in patients who are debilitated, who have a predisposition to hypotensive reactions, who otherwise exhibit a combination of factors that may result in slower metabolism of olanzapine (e.g., nonsmoking female patients ≥65 years of age), or who may be more pharmacodynamically sensitive to olanzapine [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12), Drug Interactions (7), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. When indicated, dose escalation should be performed with caution in these patients.
Maintenance Treatment — The effectiveness of oral olanzapine, 10 mg/day to 20 mg/day, in maintaining treatment response in schizophrenic patients who had been stable on olanzapine for approximately 8 weeks and were then followed for relapse has been demonstrated in a placebo-controlled trial [see Clinical Studie (14.1)]. The physician who elects to use olanzapine for extended periods should periodically reevaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.
Dose Selection — Oral olanzapine should be administered on a once-a-day schedule without regard to meals with a recommended starting dose of 2.5 or 5 mg, with a target dose of 10 mg/day. Efficacy in adolescents with schizophrenia was demonstrated based on a flexible dose range of 2.5 to 20 mg/day in clinical trials, with a mean modal dose of 12.5 mg/day (mean dose of 11.1 mg/day). When dosage adjustments are necessary, dose increments/decrements of 2.5 or 5 mg are recommended.
The safety and effectiveness of doses above 20 mg/day have not been evaluated in clinical trials [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].Maintenance Treatment — The efficacy of olanzapine for the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in the adolescent population has not been systematically evaluated; however, maintenance efficacy can be extrapolated from adult data along with comparisons of olanzapine pharmacokinetic parameters in adult and adolescent patients. Thus, it is generally recommended that responding patients be continued beyond the acute response, but at the lowest dose needed to maintain remission. Patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for maintenance treatment.
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.