In clinical trials using either dual therapy with omeprazole and clarithromycin, or triple therapy with omeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, no adverse reactions unique to these drug combinations were observed. Adverse reactions observed were limited to those previously reported with omeprazole, clarithromycin, or amoxicillin alone.
Dual Therapy (omeprazole/clarithromycin)
Adverse reactions observed in controlled clinical trials using combination therapy with omeprazole and clarithromycin (n = 346) that differed from those previously described for omeprazole alone were taste perversion (15%), tongue discoloration (2%), rhinitis (2%), pharyngitis (1%) and flu-syndrome (1%). (For more information on clarithromycin, refer to the clarithromycin prescribing information, Adverse Reactions section).
Triple Therapy (omeprazole/clarithromycin/amoxicillin)
The most frequent adverse reactions observed in clinical trials using combination therapy with omeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin (n = 274) were diarrhea (14%), taste perversion (10%), and headache (7%). None of these occurred at a higher frequency than that reported by patients taking antimicrobial agents alone. (For more information on clarithromycin or amoxicillin, refer to the respective prescribing information, Adverse Reactions sections).
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of omeprazole delayed-release capsules. Because these reactions are voluntarily reported from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their actual frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Body As a Whole
Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, interstitial nephritis, urticaria, (see also Skin below); fever; pain; fatigue; malaise;
Chest pain or angina, tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitations, elevated blood pressure, peripheral edema
Pancreatitis (some fatal), anorexia, irritable colon, fecal discoloration, esophageal candidiasis, mucosal atrophy of the tongue, stomatitis, abdominal swelling, dry mouth, microscopic colitis. During treatment with omeprazole, gastric fundic gland polyps have been noted rarely. These polyps are benign and appear to be reversible when treatment is discontinued. Gastroduodenal carcinoids have been reported in patients with ZE syndrome on long-term treatment with omeprazole. This finding is believed to be a manifestation of the underlying condition, which is known to be associated with such tumors.
Liver disease including hepatic failure (some fatal), liver necrosis (some fatal), hepatic encephalopathy hepatocellular disease, cholestatic disease, mixed hepatitis,
jaundice, and elevations of liver function tests [ALT, AST, GGT, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin]
Infections and Infestations
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea
Metabolism and Nutritional disorders
Hypoglycemia, hypomagnesemia, with or without hypocalcemia and/or hypokalemia, hyponatremia, weight gain
Muscle weakness, myalgia, muscle cramps, joint pain, leg pain, bone fracture
Psychiatric and sleep disturbances including depression, agitation, aggression, hallucinations, confusion, insomnia, nervousness, apathy, somnolence, anxiety, and dream abnormalities; tremors, paresthesia; vertigo
Epistaxis, pharyngeal pain
Severe generalized skin reactions including toxic epidermal necrolysis (some fatal), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and erythema multiforme; photosensitivity; urticaria; rash; skin inflammation; pruritus; petechiae; purpura; alopecia; dry skin; hyperhidrosis
Tinnitus, taste perversion
Optic atrophy, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, optic neuritis, dry eye syndrome, ocular irritation, blurred vision, double vision
Interstitial nephritis, hematuria, proteinuria, elevated serum creatinine, microscopic pyuria, urinary tract infection, glycosuria, urinary frequency, testicular pain
Agranulocytosis (some fatal), hemolytic anemia, pancytopenia, neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, leucocytosis
Concomitant use of atazanavir and nelfinavir with proton pump inhibitors is not recommended. Co-administration of atazanavir with proton pump inhibitors is expected to substantially decrease atazanavir plasma concentrations and may result in a loss of therapeutic effect and the development of drug resistance. Co-administration of saquinavir with proton pump inhibitors is expected to increase saquinavir concentrations, which may increase toxicity and require dose reduction.
Omeprazole has been reported to interact with some antiretroviral drugs. The clinical importance and the mechanisms behind these interactions are not always known. Increased gastric pH during omeprazole treatment may change the absorption of the antiretroviral drug. Other possible interaction mechanisms are via CYP2C19.
Reduced concentrations of atazanavir and nelfinavir
For some antiretroviral drugs, such as atazanavir and nelfinavir, decreased serum levels have been reported when given together with omeprazole. Following multiple doses of nelfinavir (1250 mg, twice daily) and omeprazole (40 mg daily), AUC was decreased by 36% and 92%, Cmax by 37% and 89% and Cmin by 39% and 75% respectively for nelfinavir and M8. Following multiple doses of atazanavir (400 mg, daily) and omeprazole (40 mg, daily, 2 hr before atazanavir), AUC was decreased by 94%, Cmax by 96%, and Cmin by 95%. Concomitant administration with omeprazole and drugs such as atazanavir and nelfinavir is therefore not recommended.
Increased concentrations of saquinavir
For other antiretroviral drugs, such as saquinavir, elevated serum levels have been reported, with an increase in AUC by 82%, in Cmax by 75%, and in Cmin by 106%, following multiple dosing of saquinavir/ritonavir (1000/100 mg) twice daily for 15 days with omeprazole 40 mg daily co-administered days 11 to 15. Therefore, clinical and laboratory monitoring for saquinavir toxicity is recommended during concurrent use with omeprazole. Dose reduction of saquinavir should be considered from the safety perspective for individual patients.
There are also some antiretroviral drugs of which unchanged serum levels have been reported when given with omeprazole.
Because of its profound and long lasting inhibition of gastric acid secretion, it is theoretically possible that omeprazole may interfere with absorption of drugs where gastric pH is an important determinant of their bioavailability. Like with other drugs that decrease the intragastric acidity, the absorption of drugs such as ketoconazole, ampicillin esters, iron salts and erlotinib can decrease, while the absorption of drugs such as digoxin can increase during treatment with omeprazole. Concomitant treatment with omeprazole (20 mg daily) and digoxin in healthy subjects increased the bioavailability of digoxin by 10% (30% in two subjects). Therefore, patients may need to be monitored when digoxin is taken concomitantly with omeprazole. In the clinical trials, antacids were used concomitantly with the administration of omeprazole.
Omeprazole can prolong the elimination of diazepam, warfarin and phenytoin, drugs that are metabolized by oxidation in the liver. There have been reports of increased INR and prothrombin time in patients receiving proton pump inhibitors, including omeprazole, and warfarin concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death. Patients treated with proton pump inhibitors and warfarin may need to be monitored for increases in INR and prothrombin time.
Although in normal subjects no interaction with theophylline or propranolol was found, there have been clinical reports of interaction with other drugs metabolized via the cytochrome P450 system (e.g., cyclosporine, disulfiram, benzodiazepines). Patients should be monitored to determine if it is necessary to adjust the dosage of these drugs when taken concomitantly with omeprazole.
Concomitant administration of omeprazole and voriconazole (a combined inhibitor of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4) resulted in more than doubling of the omeprazole exposure. Dose adjustment of omeprazole is not normally required. However, in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, who may require higher doses up to 240 mg/day, dose adjustment may be considered. When voriconazole (400 mg Q12h x 1 day, then 200 mg x 6 days) was given with omeprazole (40 mg once daily x 7 days) to healthy subjects, it significantly increased the steady-state Cmax and AUC0-24 of omeprazole, an average of 2 times (90% CI: 1.8, 2.6) and 4 times (90% CI: 3.3, 4.4) respectively as compared to when omeprazole was given without voriconazole.
Omeprazole acts as an inhibitor of CYP2C19. Omeprazole, given in doses of 40 mg daily for one week to 20 healthy subjects in cross-over study, increased Cmax and AUC of cilostazol by 18% and 26% respectively. Cmax and AUC of one of its active metabolites, 3,4-dihydro-cilostazol, which has 4 to 7 times the activity of cilostazol, were increased by 29% and 69% respectively. Co-administration of cilostazol with omeprazole is expected to increase concentrations of cilostazol and its above mentioned active metabolite. Therefore a dose reduction of cilostazol from 100 mg twice daily to 50 mg twice daily should be considered.
Drugs known to induce CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 (such as rifampin) may lead to decreased omeprazole serum levels. In a cross-over study in 12 healthy male subjects, St. John’s Wort (300 mg three times daily for 14 days), an inducer of CYP3A4, decreased the systemic exposure of omeprazole in CYP2C19 poor metabolisers (Cmax and AUC decreased by 37.5% and 37.9%, respectively) and extensive metabolisers (Cmax and AUC decreased by 49.6% and 43.9%, respectively). Avoid concomitant use of St. John’s Wort or rifampin with omeprazole.
ClopidogrelOmeprazole is an inhibitor of CYP2C19 enzyme. Clopidogrel is metabolized to its active metabolite in part by CYP2C19. Concomitant use of omeprazole 80 mg results in reduced plasma concentrations of the active metabolite of clopidogrel and a reduction in platelet inhibition. Avoid concomitant administration of omeprazole with clopidogrel. When using omeprazole, consider use of alternative anti- platelet therapy [see Pharmacokinetics (12.3)].
There are no adequate combination studies of a lower dose of omeprazole or a higher dose of clopidogrel in comparison with the approved dose of clopidogrel.
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