Omeprazole was administered to over 2000 elderly individuals (≥ 65 years of age) in clinical trials in the U.S. and Europe. There were no differences in safety and effectiveness between the elderly and younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Pharmacokinetic studies have shown the elimination rate was somewhat decreased in the elderly and bioavailability was increased. The plasma clearance of omeprazole was 250 mL/min (about half that of young volunteers) and its plasma half-life averaged one hour, about twice that of young healthy volunteers. However, no dosage adjustment is necessary in the elderly [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
In patients with hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A, B, or C) exposure to omeprazole substantially increased compared to healthy subjects. Dosage reduction of omeprazole to 10 mg once daily is recommended for patients with hepatic impairment for maintenance of healing of EE [see Dosage and Administration (2.1),Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
In studies of healthy subjects, Asians had approximately a four-fold higher exposure than Caucasians. Dosage reduction of omeprazole to 10 mg once daily is recommended for Asian patients for maintenance of healing of EE [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)].
Reports have been received of overdosage with omeprazole in humans. Doses ranged up to 2400 mg (120 times the usual recommended clinical dose). Manifestations were variable, but included confusion, drowsiness, blurred vision, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, flushing, headache, dry mouth, and other adverse reactions similar to those seen in normal clinical experience [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. Symptoms were transient, and no serious clinical outcome has been reported when omeprazole was taken alone. No specific antidote for omeprazole overdosage is known. Omeprazole is extensively protein bound and is, therefore, not readily dialyzable. In the event of overdosage, treatment should be symptomatic and supportive.
If over-exposure occurs, call your Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222 for current information on the management of poisoning or overdosage.
The active ingredient in omeprazole delayed-release capsules is a substituted benzimidazole, 5-methoxy-2-[[(4-methoxy-3, 5-dimethyl-2-pyridinyl) methyl] sulfinyl]-1H-benzimidazole, a compound that inhibits gastric acid secretion. Its empirical formula is C 17 H 19 N 3 O 3 S, with a molecular weight of 345.42. The structural formula is:
Omeprazole is a white to off-white powder. Melts between 150°C and 160°C with decomposition. It is soluble in dichloromethane, sparingly soluble in methanol and in alcohol and very slightly soluble in water.
Omeprazole is supplied as delayed-release capsules for oral administration. Each delayed-release capsule contains either 10 mg, 20 mg or 40 mg of omeprazole in the form of enteric-coated granules with the following inactive ingredients: crospovidone, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, mannitol, meglumine, methacrylic acid copolymer, poloxamer, povidone and triethyl citrate.
The capsule shells contains: D&C Red No. 28, FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 6, yellow iron oxide, gelatin, silicon dioxide, sodium lauryl sulphate and titanium dioxide. Imprinting ink contains: D&C Yellow No. 10 aluminum lake, FD&C Blue No. 1 aluminum lake, FD&C Blue No. 2 aluminum lake, FD&C Red No. 40 aluminum lake, n-butyl alcohol, pharmaceutical glaze, propylene glycol, SDA-3A alcohol and synthetic black iron oxide.
Omeprazole delayed-release capsules meets USP Dissolution Test 2.
Omeprazole belongs to a class of antisecretory compounds, the substituted benzimidazoles, that suppress gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the H+/K+ ATPase enzyme system at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. Because this enzyme system is regarded as the acid (proton) pump within the gastric mucosa, omeprazole has been characterized as a gastric acid-pump inhibitor, in that it blocks the final step of acid production. This effect is dose-related and leads to inhibition of both basal and stimulated acid secretion irrespective of the stimulus.
After oral administration, the onset of the antisecretory effect of omeprazole occurs within one hour, with the maximum effect occurring within two hours. Inhibition of secretion is about 50% of maximum at 24 hours and the duration of inhibition lasts up to 72 hours. The antisecretory effect thus lasts far longer than would be expected from the very short (less than one hour) plasma half-life, apparently due to prolonged binding to the parietal H + /K + ATPase enzyme. When the drug is discontinued, secretory activity returns gradually, over 3 to 5 days. The inhibitory effect of omeprazole on acid secretion increases with repeated once-daily dosing, reaching a plateau after four days.
Results from numerous studies of the antisecretory effect of multiple doses of 20 mg and 40 mg of omeprazole in healthy subjects and patients are shown below. The “max” value represents determinations at a time of maximum effect (2 to 6 hours after dosing), while “min” values are those 24 hours after the last dose of omeprazole.
Table 5: Range of Mean Values from Multiple Studies of the Mean Antisecretory Effects of Omeprazole After Multiple Daily Dosing
|Omeprazole 20 mg||Omeprazole 40 mg|
|% Decrease in Basal Acid Output||78 1||58 to 80||94 1||80 to 93|
|% Decrease in Peak Acid Output||79 1||50 to 59||88 1||62 to 68|
|% Decrease in 24–hr Intragastric Acidity||80 to 97||92 to 94|
1 Single Studies
Single daily oral doses of omeprazole ranging from a dose of 10 mg to 40 mg have produced 100% inhibition of 24-hour intragastric acidity in some patients.
Serum Gastrin Effects
In studies involving more than 200 patients, serum gastrin levels increased during the first 1 to 2 weeks of once-daily administration of therapeutic doses of omeprazole in parallel with inhibition of acid secretion. No further increase in serum gastrin occurred with continued treatment. In comparison with histamine H 2 -receptor antagonists, the median increases produced by 20 mg doses of omeprazole were higher (1.3 to 3.6 fold vs. 1.1 to 1.8 fold increase). Gastrin values returned to pretreatment levels, usually within 1 to 2 weeks after discontinuation of therapy.
Increased gastrin causes enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia and increased serum Chromogranin A (CgA) levels. The increased CgA levels may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].
Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) Cell Effects
Human gastric biopsy specimens have been obtained from more than 3000 patients (both children and adults) treated with omeprazole in long-term clinical trials. The incidence of ECL cell hyperplasia in these studies increased with time; however, no case of ECL cell carcinoids, dysplasia, or neoplasia has been found in these patients. However, these studies are of insufficient duration and size to rule out the possible influence of long-term administration of omeprazole on the development of any premalignant or malignant conditions.
Systemic effects of omeprazole in the CNS, cardiovascular and respiratory systems have not been found to date. Omeprazole, given in oral doses of 30 or 40 mg for 2 to 4 weeks, had no effect on thyroid function, carbohydrate metabolism, or circulating levels of parathyroid hormone, cortisol, estradiol, testosterone, prolactin, cholecystokinin or secretin.
No effect on gastric emptying of the solid and liquid components of a test meal was demonstrated after a single dose of omeprazole 90 mg. In healthy subjects, a single intravenous dose of omeprazole (0.35 mg/kg) had no effect on intrinsic factor secretion. No systematic dose-dependent effect has been observed on basal or stimulated pepsin output in humans.
However, when intragastric pH is maintained at 4 or above, basal pepsin output is low, and pepsin activity is decreased. As do other agents that elevate intragastric pH, omeprazole administered for 14 days in healthy subjects produced a significant increase in the intragastric concentrations of viable bacteria. The pattern of the bacterial species was unchanged from that commonly found in saliva. All changes resolved within three days of stopping treatment.
The course of Barrett’s esophagus in 106 patients was evaluated in a U.S. double-blind controlled study of omeprazole 40 mg twice daily for 12 months followed by 20 mg twice daily for 12 months or ranitidine 300 mg twice daily for 24 months. No clinically significant impact on Barrett’s mucosa by antisecretory therapy was observed. Although neosquamous epithelium developed during antisecretory therapy, complete elimination of Barrett’s mucosa was not achieved. No significant difference was observed between treatment groups in development of dysplasia in Barrett’s mucosa and no patient developed esophageal carcinoma during treatment. No significant differences between treatment groups were observed in development of ECL cell hyperplasia, corpus atrophic gastritis, corpus intestinal metaplasia, or colon polyps exceeding 3 mm in diameter.
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