Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI.
For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesemia (e.g., diuretics), health care professionals may consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.3)] .
Drugs which induce CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 (such as St. John’s Wort or rifampin) can substantially decrease omeprazole concentrations [see Drug Interactions ( 7)]. Avoid concomitant use of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules with St. John’s Wort or rifampin.
Serum chromogranin A (CgA) levels increase secondary to drug-induced decreases in gastric acidity. The increased CgA level may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors. Healthcare providers should temporarily stop Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules treatment at least 14 days before assessing CgA levels and consider repeating the test if initial CgA levels are high. If serial tests are performed (e.g., for monitoring), the same commercial laboratory should be used for testing, as reference ranges between tests may vary [see D rug Interactions ( 7)] .
Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients [see Drug Interactions ( 7 )].
PPI use is associated with an increased risk of fundic gland polyps that increases with long-term use, especially beyond one year. Most PPI users who developed fundic gland polyps were asymptomatic and fundic gland polyps were identified incidentally on endoscopy. Use the shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated.
The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in labeling:
Acute Interstitial Nephritis [see W arnings and Precautions ( 5.2)]
Clostridium difficile -Associated Diarrhea [see W arnings and Precautions ( 5.3)]
Bone Fracture [see W arnings and Precautions ( 5.4)]
Cutaneous and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus [see W arnings and Precautions ( 5.5)]
Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12) Deficiency [see W arnings and Precautions ( 5.7)]
Hypomagnesemia [see W arnings and Precautions ( 5.8)]
Fundic Gland Polyps [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.12)]
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The safety data described below reflects exposure to Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules in 3096 patients from worldwide clinical trials (465 patients from US studies and 2,631 patients from international studies). Indications clinically studied in US trials included duodenal ulcer, resistant ulcer, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The international clinical trials were double blind and open-label in design. The most common adverse reactions reported (i.e., with an incidence rate ≥ 2%) from Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules-treated patients enrolled in these studies included headache (7%), abdominal pain (5%), nausea (4%), diarrhea (4%), vomiting (3%), and flatulence (3%).
Additional adverse reactions that were reported with an incidence ≥ 1% included acid regurgitation (2%), upper respiratory infection (2%), constipation (2%), dizziness (2%), rash (2%), asthenia (1%), back pain (1%), and cough (1%).
The clinical trial safety profile in patients greater than 65 years of age was similar to that in patients 65 years of age or less.
The clinical trial safety profile in pediatric patients who received Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules was similar to that in adult patients. Unique to the pediatric population, however, adverse reactions of the respiratory system were frequently reported in the 1 to <2 year age group and the 2 to 16 year age group (75% and 19% respectively). In addition, fever was frequently reported in the 1 <2 year age group (33%), and accidental injuries were reported frequently in the 2 to 16 year age group (4%) [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.4)] .
6.2 Clinical Trials Experience with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules in Combination Therapy for H. pylori Eradication
In clinical trials using either dual therapy with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules and clarithromycin, or triple therapy with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, no adverse reactions unique to these drug combinations were observed. Adverse reactions observed were limited to those previously reported with omeprazole, clarithromycin, or amoxicillin alone.
Dual Therapy (Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules/clarithromycin)
Adverse reactions observed in controlled clinical trials using combination therapy with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules and clarithromycin (n = 346) that differed from those previously described for Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules alone were taste perversion (15%), tongue discoloration (2%), rhinitis (2%), pharyngitis (1%) and flu-syndrome (1%). (For more information on clarithromycin, refer to the clarithromycin prescribing information, Adverse Reactions section.)
Triple Therapy (Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules/clarithromycin/amoxicillin)
The most frequent adverse reactions observed in clinical trials using combination therapy with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin (n = 274) were diarrhea (14%), taste perversion (10%), and headache (7%). None of these occurred at a higher frequency than that reported by patients taking antimicrobial agents alone. (For more information on clarithromycin or amoxicillin, refer to the respective prescribing information, Adverse Reactions sections.)
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules. Because these reactions are voluntarily reported from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their actual frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Body As a Whole: Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, interstitial nephritis, urticaria, (see also Skin below); fever; pain; fatigue; malaise; systemic lupus erythematosus
Cardiovascular: Chest pain or angina, tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitations, elevated blood pressure, peripheral edema
Gastrointestinal: Pancreatitis (some fatal), anorexia, irritable colon, fecal discoloration, esophageal candidiasis, mucosal atrophy of the tongue, stomatitis, abdominal swelling, dry mouth, microscopic colitis, fundic gland polyps.
Gastroduodenal carcinoids have been reported in patients with ZE syndrome on long-term treatment with Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules. This finding is believed to be a manifestation of the underlying condition, which is known to be associated with such tumors.
Hepatic: Liver disease including hepatic failure (some fatal), liver necrosis (some fatal), hepatic encephalopathy hepatocellular disease, cholestatic disease, mixed hepatitis, jaundice, and elevations of liver function tests [ALT, AST, GGT, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin]
Infections and Infestations : Clostridium difficile- associated diarrhea
Metabolism and Nutritional disorders: Hypoglycemia, hypomagnesemia, with or without hypocalcemia and/or hypokalemia, hyponatremia, weight gain
Musculoskeletal: Muscle weakness, myalgia, muscle cramps, joint pain, leg pain, bone fracture
Nervous System/Psychiatric: Psychiatric and sleep disturbances including depression, agitation, aggression, hallucinations, confusion, insomnia, nervousness, apathy, somnolence, anxiety, and dream abnormalities; tremors, paresthesia; vertigo
Respiratory: Epistaxis, pharyngeal pain
Skin: Severe generalized skin reactions including toxic epidermal necrolysis (some fatal), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, cutaneous lupus erythematosus and erythema multiforme; photosensitivity; urticaria; rash; skin inflammation; pruritus; petechiae; purpura; alopecia; dry skin; hyperhidrosis
Special Senses: Tinnitus, taste perversion
Ocular: Optic atrophy, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, optic neuritis, dry eye syndrome, ocular irritation, blurred vision, double vision
Urogenital: Interstitial nephritis, hematuria, proteinuria, elevated serum creatinine, microscopic pyuria, urinary tract infection, glycosuria, urinary frequency, testicular pain
Hematologic: Agranulocytosis (some fatal), hemolytic anemia, pancytopenia, neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, leukocytosis
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.