Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The safety of Omeprazole and Sodium Bicarbonate capsules has been established, in part, based on oral studies of an oral delayed-release omeprazole product.
Clinical Trials with Omeprazole
In the U.S. clinical trial population of 465 adult patients, the adverse reactions summarized in Table 3 were reported to occur in 1% or more of patients on therapy with omeprazole. Numbers in parentheses indicate percentages of the adverse reactions considered by investigators as possibly, probably or definitely related to the drug.Table 3: Adverse Reactions Occurring in 1% or More of Adult Patients in US Clinical Trials of Omeprazole Therapy
|Omeprazole % (n = 465)||Placebo % (n = 64)||Ranitidine % (n = 195)|
|Upper Respiratory Infection URI||2||2||3|
Table 4 summarizes the adverse reactions that occurred in 1% or more of omeprazole-treated patients from international double-blind and open-label clinical trials in which 2,631 patients and subjects received omeprazole.Table 4: Adverse Reactions Occurring in 1% or More of Adult Patients in International Clinical Trials of Omeprazole Therapy
|Omeprazole % (N = 2631)||Placebo % (N = 120)|
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Body as a Whole: Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, angioedema,bronchospasm, urticaria (see also Skin below), fever, pain, fatigue, malaise, and systemic lupus erythematosus.
Cardiovascular: Chest pain or angina, tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitation, elevated blood pressure, and peripheral edema.
Gastrointestinal: Pancreatitis (some fatal), anorexia, irritable colon, flatulence, fecal discoloration, esophageal candidiasis, mucosal atrophy of the tongue, dry mouth, stomatitis, abdominal swelling and fundic gland polyps. Gastroduodenal carcinoids have been reported in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome on long-term treatment with omeprazole. This finding is believed to be a manifestation of the underlying condition, which is known to be associated with such tumors.
Hepatic: Mild and, rarely, marked elevations of liver function tests [ALT (SGPT), AST (SGOT), γ — glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin (jaundice)]. In rare instances, overt liver disease has occurred, including hepatocellular, cholestatic, or mixed hepatitis, liver necrosis (some fatal), hepatic failure (some fatal), and hepatic encephalopathy.
Infections and Infestations: Clostridium difficile -associated diarrhea.
Metabolism and Nutritional Disorders: Hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, hypomagnesemia, and weight gain.
Musculoskeletal: Muscle cramps, myalgia, muscle weakness, joint pain, bone fracture, and leg pain.
Nervous System/Psychiatric: Psychic disturbances including depression, agitation, aggression, hallucinations, confusion, insomnia, nervousness, tremors, apathy, somnolence, anxiety, dream abnormalities; vertigo; paresthesia; and hemifacial dysesthesia.
Respiratory: Epistaxis, pharyngeal pain.
Skin: Severe generalized skin reactions including toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN; some fatal), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, cutaneous lupus erythematosus and erythema multiforme (some severe); purpura and/or petechiae (some with rechallenge); skin inflammation, urticaria, angioedema, pruritus, photosensitivity, alopecia, dry skin, and hyperhidrosis.
Special Senses: Tinnitus, taste perversion.
Ocular: Blurred vision, ocular irritation, dry eye syndrome, optic atrophy, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, optic neuritis, and double vision.
Urogenital: Tubulointerstitial nephritis, urinary tract infection, microscopic pyuria, urinary frequency, elevated serum creatinine, proteinuria, hematuria, glycosuria, testicular pain, and gynecomastia.
Hematologic: Rare instances of pancytopenia, agranulocytosis (some fatal), thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, leukopenia, anemia, leukocytosis, and hemolytic anemia have been reported.
The incidence of clinical adverse experiences in patients greater than 65 years of age was similar to that in patients 65 years of age or less.
Additional adverse reactions that could be caused by sodium bicarbonate include metabolic alkalosis, seizures, and tetany.
Metabolic alkalosis, seizures, and tetany.
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