ONDANSETRON (Page 3 of 6)

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Serotonergic Drugs

Serotonin syndrome (including altered mental status, autonomic instability, and neuromuscular symptoms) has been described following the concomitant use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and other serotonergic drugs, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. If symptoms occur, discontinue ondansetron tablets and initiate supportive treatment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

7.2 Drugs Affecting Cytochrome P-450 Enzymes

Ondansetron does not itself appear to induce or inhibit the cytochrome P-450 drug-metabolizing enzyme system of the liver [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Because ondansetron is metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P-450 drug-metabolizing enzymes (CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP1A2), inducers or inhibitors of these enzymes may change the clearance and, hence, the half-life of ondansetron. In patients treated with potent inducers of CYP3A4 (i.e., phenytoin, carbamazepine, and rifampin), the clearance of ondansetron was significantly increased and ondansetron blood concentrations were decreased. However, on the basis of available data, no dosage adjustment for ondansetron tablets is recommended for patients on these drugs [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

7.3 Tramadol

Although no pharmacokinetic drug interaction between ondansetron and tramadol has been observed, data from 2 small trials indicate that when used together, ondansetron tablets may increase patient-controlled administration of tramadol. Monitor patients to ensure adequate pain control when ondansetron is administered with tramadol.

7.4 Chemotherapy

Carmustine, etoposide, and cisplatin do not affect the pharmacokinetics of ondansetron.

In a crossover trial in 76 pediatric patients, intravenous ondansetron did not increase systemic concentrations of high-dose methotrexate.

7.5 Alfentanil and Atracurium

Ondansetron tablets do not alter the respiratory depressant effects produced by alfentanil or the degree of neuromuscular blockade produced by atracurium. Interactions with general or local anesthetics have not been studied.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Available data do not reliably inform the association of ondansetron tablets and adverse fetal outcomes. Published epidemiological studies on the association between ondansetron and fetal outcomes have reported inconsistent findings and have important methodological limitations hindering interpretation (see Data). Reproductive studies in rats and rabbits did not show evidence of harm to the fetus when ondansetron was administered during organogenesis at approximately 6 and 24 times the maximum recommended human oral dose of 24 mg/day, based on body surface area, respectively (see Data).

The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the US general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriages in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.

Data

Human Data

Methodological limitations of the epidemiology studies preclude a reliable evaluation of the potential risk of adverse fetal outcomes with the use of ondansetron in pregnancy.

Two large retrospective cohort studies of ondansetron use in pregnancy have been published. In one study with 1,349 infants born to women who reported the use of ondansetron or received an ondansetron prescription in the first trimester, no increased risk for major congenital malformations was seen in aggregate analysis. In this same study, however, a sub-analysis for specific malformations reported an association between ondansetron exposure and cardiovascular defect (odds ratio (OR) 1.62 [95% CI (1.04, 2.14)]) and cardiac septal defect (OR) 2.05 [95% CI (1.19, 3.28)]). The second study examined 1970 women who received ondansetron prescription during pregnancy and reported no association between ondansetron exposure and major congenital malformations, miscarriage or stillbirth, and infants of low birth weight or small for gestational age. Important methodological limitations with these studies include the uncertainty of whether women who filled a prescription actually took the medication, the concomitant use of other medications or treatments, and other unadjusted confounders that may account for the study findings.

A case-control study evaluating associations between several common non-cardiac malformations and multiple antiemetic drugs reported an association between maternal use of ondansetron and isolated cleft palate (reported adjusted OR = 2.37 [95% CI (1.18, 4.76)]). However, this association could be a chance finding, given the large number of drugs-birth defect comparisons in this study. It is unknown whether ondansetron exposure in utero in the cases of cleft palate occurred during the time of palate formation (the palate is formed between the 6th and 9th weeks of pregnancy) or whether mothers of infants with cleft palate used other medications or had other risk factors for cleft palate in the offspring. In addition, no cases of isolated cleft palate were identified in the aforementioned 2 large retrospective cohort studies. At this time, there is no clear evidence that ondansetron exposure in early pregnancy can cause cleft palate.

Animal Data

In embryo-fetal development studies in rats and rabbits, pregnant animals received oral doses of ondansetron up to 15 mg/kg/day and 30 mg/kg/day, respectively, during the period of organogenesis. With the exception of a slight decrease in maternal body weight gain in the rabbits, there were no significant effects of ondansetron on the maternal animals or the development of the offspring. At doses of 15 mg/kg/day in rats and 30 mg/kg/day in rabbits, the maternal exposure margin was approximately 6 and 24 times the maximum recommended human oral dose of 24 mg/day, respectively, based on body surface area.

In a pre- and postnatal developmental toxicity study, pregnant rats received oral doses of ondansetron up to 15 mg/ kg/day from Day 17 of pregnancy to litter Day 21. With the exception of a slight reduction in maternal body weight gain, there were no effects upon the pregnant rats and the pre-and postnatal development of their offspring, including reproductive performance of the mated F1 generation. At a dose of 15 mg/kg/day in rats, the maternal exposure margin was approximately 6 times the maximum recommended human oral dose of 24 mg/day, based on body surface area.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

It is not known whether ondansetron is present in human milk. There are no data on the effects of ondansetron tablets on the breastfed infant or the effects on milk production. However, it has been demonstrated that ondansetron is present in the milk of rats.

The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for ondansetron tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breast fed infant from ondansetron tablets or from the underlying maternal condition.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of orally administered ondansetron tablets have been established in pediatric patients 4 years and older for the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with moderately emetogenic cancer chemotherapy. Use of ondansetron tablets in these age-groups is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of ondansetron tablets in adults with additional data from 3 open-label, uncontrolled, non-US trials in 182 pediatric patients aged 4 to 18 years with cancer who were given a variety of cisplatin or noncisplatin regimens [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Clinical Studies (14.1)].

Additional information on the use of ondansetron in pediatric patients may be found in ondansetron injection prescribing information.

The safety and effectiveness of orally administered ondansetron tablets have not been established in pediatric patients for:

prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy.
prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with radiotherapy.
prevention of postoperative nausea and/or vomiting.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Of the total number of subjects enrolled in cancer chemotherapy-induced and postoperative nausea and vomiting in US-and foreign-controlled clinical trials, for which there were subgroup analyses, 938 (19%) were aged 65 years and older.

No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between subjects 65 years of age and older and younger subjects. A reduction in clearance and increase in elimination half-life were seen in patients older than 75 years compared with younger subjects [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. There were an insufficient number of patients older than 75 years of age and older in the clinical trials to permit safety or efficacy conclusions in this age-group. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. No dosage adjustment is needed in elderly patients.

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