ONFI- clobazam tablet
ONFI™ (clobazam) is indicated for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) in patients 2 years of age or older.
ONFI should be administered in divided doses twice daily (the 5 mg dose can be administered as a single daily dose). Patients should be dosed according to body weight. Within each body weight group, dosing should be individualized based on clinical efficacy and tolerability. Each dose in Table 1 has been shown to be effective, although effectiveness increases with increasing dose [see Clinical Studies (14)]. Dose escalation should not proceed more rapidly than weekly, because serum concentrations of clobazam and its active metabolite require 5 and 9 days, respectively, to reach steady-state.
|≤30 kg Body Weight||>30 kg Body Weight|
|Starting Dose||5 mg||10 mg|
|Starting Day 7||10 mg||20 mg|
|Starting Day 14||20 mg||40 mg|
ONFI tablets can be administered whole, or crushed and mixed in applesauce. ONFI can be taken without regard to timing of meals.
Plasma concentrations at any given dose are generally higher in the elderly, and dose escalation should proceed slowly. The starting dose should be 5 mg/day for all elderly patients. Patients should then be titrated according to weight, but to half the dose presented in Table 1, as tolerated. If necessary and based upon clinical response, an additional titration to the maximum dose (20 mg/day or 40 mg/day, depending on weight) may be started on day 21 [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
In CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, levels of N-desmethylclobazam, clobazam’s active metabolite, will be increased. Therefore, in patients known to be CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, the starting dose should be 5 mg/day and dose titration should proceed slowly according to weight, but to half the dose presented in Table 1, as tolerated. If necessary and based upon clinical response, an additional titration to the maximum dose (20 mg/day or 40 mg/day, depending on the weight group) may be started on day 21 [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)].
No dose adjustment is required for patients with mild and moderate renal impairment. There is no experience with ONFI in patients with severe renal impairment or end stage renal disease (ESRD). It is not known if clobazam or its active metabolite, N-desmethylclobazam, is dialyzable [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
ONFI is hepatically metabolized; however, there are limited data to characterize the effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of ONFI. For this reason, dosing titration should proceed slowly. For patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score 5-9), the starting dose should be 5 mg/day in both weight groups. Patients should then be titrated according to weight, but to half the dose presented in Table 1, as tolerated. If necessary and based upon clinical response, an additional titration to the maximum dose (20 mg/day or 40 mg/day, depending on the weight group) may be started on day 21. There is inadequate information about metabolism of ONFI in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Therefore no dosing recommendation in those patients can be given [see Use in Specific Populations (8.8), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
As with all antiepileptic drugs and benzodiazepines, ONFI should be withdrawn gradually. Taper by decreasing the total daily dose by 5-10 mg/day on a weekly basis until discontinued [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg tablets for oral administration.
Each ONFI tablet is white, round, and debossed with “LU” on one side and “5,” “10,” or “20″ on the other side.
ONFI causes somnolence and sedation. In clinical trials, somnolence or sedation were reported at all effective doses and were dose-related.
In general, somnolence and sedation begin within the first month of treatment and may diminish with continued treatment. Prescribers should monitor patients for somnolence and sedation, particularly with concomitant use of other central nervous system depressants. Prescribers should caution patients against engaging in hazardous activities requiring mental alertness, such as operating dangerous machinery or motor vehicles, until the effect of ONFI is known.
Since ONFI has a central nervous system (CNS) depressant effect, patients or their caregivers should be cautioned against simultaneous use with other CNS depressant drugs or alcohol, and cautioned that the effects of other CNS depressant drugs or alcohol may be potentiated.
Abrupt discontinuation of ONFI should be avoided. ONFI should be tapered by decreasing the dose every week by 5-10 mg/day until discontinuation [see Dosage and Administration (2.6)].
Withdrawal symptoms occurred following abrupt discontinuation of ONFI; the risk of withdrawal symptoms is greater with higher doses.
As with all antiepileptic drugs, ONFI should be withdrawn gradually to minimize the risk of precipitating seizures, seizure exacerbation, or status epilepticus.
Withdrawal symptoms (e.g., convulsions, psychosis, hallucinations, behavioral disorder, tremor, and anxiety) have been reported following abrupt discontinuance of benzodiazepines. The more severe withdrawal symptoms have usually been limited to patients who received excessive doses over an extended period of time, followed by an abrupt discontinuation. Generally milder withdrawal symptoms (e.g., dysphoria, anxiety, and insomnia) have been reported following abrupt discontinuance of benzodiazepines taken continuously at therapeutic doses for several months.
Patients with a history of substance abuse should be under careful surveillance when receiving ONFI or other psychotropic agents because of the predisposition of such patients to habituation and dependence [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9)].
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including ONFI, increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in patients taking these drugs for any indication. Patients treated with any AED for any indication should be monitored for the emergence or worsening of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, and/or any unusual changes in mood or behavior.
Pooled analyses of 199 placebo-controlled clinical trials (mono- and adjunctive therapy) of 11 different AEDs showed that patients randomized to one of the AEDs had approximately twice the risk (adjusted relative risk 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.2, 2.7) of suicidal thinking or behavior compared to patients randomized to placebo. In these trials, which had a median treatment duration of 12 weeks, the estimated incidence rate of suicidal behavior or ideation among 27,863 AED treated patients was 0.43%, compared to 0.24% among 16,029 placebo treated patients, representing an increase of approximately one case of suicidal thinking or behavior for every 530 patients treated. There were four suicides in drug treated patients in the trials and none in placebo treated patients, but the number is too small to allow any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.
The increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with AEDs was observed as early as one week after starting drug treatment with AEDs and persisted for the duration of treatment assessed. Because most trials included in the analysis did not extend beyond 24 weeks, the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior beyond 24 weeks could not be assessed.
The risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior was generally consistent among drugs in the data analyzed. The finding of increased risk with AEDs of varying mechanisms of action and across a range of indications suggests that the risk applies to all AEDs used for any indication. The risk did not vary substantially by age (5-100 years) in the clinical trials analyzed. Table 2 shows absolute and relative risk by indication for all evaluated AEDs.
|Indication||Placebo Patients with Events per 1000 Patients||Drug Patients with Events per 1000 Patients||Relative Risk: Incidence of Drug Events in Drug Patients/Incidence in Placebo Patients||Risk Difference: Additional Drug Patients with Events per 1000 Patients|
The relative risk for suicidal thoughts or behavior was higher in clinical trials for epilepsy than in clinical trials for psychiatric or other conditions, but the absolute risk differences were similar for the epilepsy and psychiatric indications.
Anyone considering prescribing ONFI or any other AED must balance the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with the risk of untreated illness. Epilepsy and many other illnesses for which AEDs are prescribed are themselves associated with morbidity and mortality and an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior. Should suicidal thoughts and behavior emerge during treatment, the prescriber needs to consider whether the emergence of these symptoms in any given patient may be related to the illness being treated.
Patients, their caregivers, and families should be informed that AEDs increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior and should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of the signs and symptoms of depression, any unusual changes in mood or behavior, or the emergence of suicidal thoughts, behavior, or thoughts about self-harm. Behaviors of concern should be reported immediately to healthcare providers.
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