Overuse of acute migraine drugs (e.g., ergotamine, triptans, opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or combinations of these drugs for 10 or more days per month) may lead to exacerbation of headache (medication overuse headache). Medication overuse headache may present as migraine-like daily headaches or as a marked increase in frequency of migraine attacks. Detoxification of patients, including withdrawal of the overused drugs, and treatment of withdrawal symptoms (which often includes a transient worsening of headache) may be necessary.
Serotonin syndrome may occur with triptans, including ONZETRA Xsail, particularly during co-administration with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and MAO inhibitors [see Drug Interactions (7.4)]. Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, hyperthermia), neuromuscular abnormalities (e.g., hyperreflexia, incoordination), and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). The onset of symptoms usually occurs within minutes to hours of receiving a new or a greater dose of a serotonergic medication. Discontinue ONZETRA Xsail if serotonin syndrome is suspected.
Significant elevation in blood pressure, including hypertensive crisis with acute impairment of organ systems, has been reported on rare occasions in patients treated with 5-HT1 agonists, including patients without a history of hypertension. Monitor blood pressure in patients treated with ONZETRA Xsail. ONZETRA Xsail is contraindicated in patients with uncontrolled hypertension.
Hypersensitivity reactions, including angioedema and anaphylaxis, have occurred in patients receiving sumatriptan. Such reactions can be life-threatening or fatal. In general, anaphylactic reactions to drugs are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens. ONZETRA Xsail is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity reaction to sumatriptan.
Seizures have been reported following administration of sumatriptan. Some have occurred in patients with either a history of seizures or concurrent conditions predisposing to seizures. There are also reports in patients where no such predisposing factors are apparent. ONZETRA Xsail should be used with caution in patients with a history of epilepsy or conditions associated with a lowered seizure threshold.
The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in more detail in other sections of the prescribing information:
- Myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, and Prinzmetal’s angina [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Arrhythmias [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Chest, throat, neck and/or jaw pain/tightness/pressure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Cerebrovascular events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Other vasospasm reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
- Medication overuse headache [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
- Serotonin syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
- Increase in blood pressure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
- Hypersensitivity reactions [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]
- Seizures [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to the rates in the clinical trials of another drug, and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Table 1 lists adverse reactions that occurred in 2 placebo-controlled clinical trials in 301 patients with migraine who took at least 1 dose of ONZETRA Xsail or placebo. Only adverse reactions that occurred at a frequency of 2% or more with ONZETRA Xsail and that occurred at a frequency greater than the placebo group are included in Table 1.
|Percent of Patients Reporting|
There is insufficient data with ONZETRA Xsail to assess the impact of age, gender, and race on adverse effects.
The following adverse reaction has been identified during post approval use of ONZETRA Xsail. Because this reaction is reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate its frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Epistaxis has been identified during post approval use of ONZETRA Xsail as an adverse reaction.
Ergot-containing drugs have been reported to cause prolonged vasospastic reactions. Because these effects may be additive, use of ergotamine containing or ergot-type medications (like dihydroergotamine or methysergide) and ONZETRA Xsail within 24 hours of each other is contraindicated.
MAO-A inhibitors increase systemic exposure by up to 7-fold. Therefore, the use of ONZETRA Xsail in patients receiving MAO-A inhibitors is contraindicated [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Because their vasospastic effects may be additive, co-administration of ONZETRA Xsail and other 5-HT1 agonists (e.g., triptans) within 24 hours of each other is contraindicated.
7.4 Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors/Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors and Serotonin Syndrome
Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported during co-administration of triptans and SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, and MAO inhibitors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
Data from a prospective pregnancy exposure registry and epidemiological studies of pregnant women have not detected an increased frequency of birth defects or a consistent pattern of birth defects among women exposed to sumatriptan compared with the general population (see Data). In developmental toxicity studies in rats and rabbits, oral administration of sumatriptan to pregnant animals was associated with embryolethality, fetal abnormalities, and pup mortality. When administered by the intravenous route to pregnant rabbits, sumatriptan was embryolethal (see Data).
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and of miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively. The reported rate of major birth defects among deliveries to women with migraine ranged from 2.2% to 2.9%, and the reported rate of miscarriage was 17%, which were similar to rates reported in women without migraine.
Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk: Several studies have suggested that women with migraine may be at increased risk of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension during pregnancy.
Human Data: The Sumatriptan/Naratriptan/Treximet (sumatriptan and naproxen sodium) Pregnancy Registry, a population-based international prospective study, collected data for sumatriptan from January 1996 to September 2012. The Registry documented outcomes of 626 infants and fetuses exposed to sumatriptan during pregnancy (528 with earliest exposure during the first trimester, 78 during the second trimester, 16 during the third trimester, and 4 unknown). The occurrence of major birth defects (excluding fetal deaths and induced abortions without reported defects and all spontaneous pregnancy losses) during first-trimester exposure to sumatriptan was 4.2% (20/478 [95% CI: 2.6% to 6.5%]) and during any trimester of exposure was 4.2% (24/576 [95% CI: 2.7% to 6.2%]). The sample size in this study had 80% power to detect at least a 1.73- to 1.91-fold increase in the rate of major malformations. The number of exposed pregnancy outcomes accumulated during the registry was insufficient to support definitive conclusions about overall malformation risk or to support comparisons of the frequencies of specific birth defects. Of the 20 infants with reported birth defects after exposure to sumatriptan in the first trimester, 4 infants had ventricular septal defects, including one infant who was exposed to both sumatriptan and naratriptan, and 3 infants had pyloric stenosis. No other birth defect was reported for more than 2 infants in this group.
In a study using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, live births to women who reported using triptans or ergots during pregnancy were compared with those of women who did not. Of the 2,257 births with first-trimester exposure to sumatriptan, 107 infants were born with malformations (relative risk 0.99 [95% CI: 0.91 to 1.21]). A study using linked data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway to the Norwegian Prescription Database compared pregnancy outcomes in women who redeemed prescriptions for triptans during pregnancy, as well as a migraine disease comparison group who redeemed prescriptions for sumatriptan before pregnancy only, compared with a population control group. Of the 415 women who redeemed prescriptions for sumatriptan during the first trimester, 15 had infants with major congenital malformations (OR 1.16 [95% CI: 0.69 to 1.94]) while for the 364 women who redeemed prescriptions for sumatriptan before, but not during, pregnancy, 20 had infants with major congenital malformations (OR 1.83 [95% CI: 1.17 to 2.88]), each compared with the population comparison group. Additional smaller observational studies evaluating use of sumatriptan during pregnancy have not suggested an increased risk of teratogenicity.
Animal Data: Oral administration of sumatriptan to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis resulted in an increased incidence of fetal blood vessel (cervicothoracic and umbilical) abnormalities. The highest no-effect dose for embryofetal developmental toxicity in rats was 60 mg/kg/day. Oral administration of sumatriptan to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis resulted in increased incidences of embryolethality and fetal cervicothoracic vascular and skeletal abnormalities. Intravenous administration of sumatriptan to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis resulted in an increased incidence of embryolethality. The highest oral and intravenous no-effect doses for developmental toxicity in rabbits were 15 and 0.75 mg/kg/day, respectively.
Oral administration of sumatriptan to rats prior to and throughout gestation resulted in embryofetal toxicity (decreased body weight, decreased ossification, increased incidence of skeletal abnormalities). The highest no-effect dose was 50 mg/kg/day. In offspring of pregnant rats treated orally with sumatriptan during organogenesis, there was a decrease in pup survival. The highest no-effect dose for this effect was 60 mg/kg/day. Oral treatment of pregnant rats with sumatriptan during the latter part of gestation and throughout lactation resulted in a decrease in pup survival. The highest no-effect dose for this finding was 100 mg/kg/day.
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