Sumatriptan is excreted in human milk following subcutaneous administration (see Data). There is no information regarding sumatriptan concentrations in milk from lactating women following administration of ONZETRA Xsail. There are no data on the effects of sumatriptan on the breastfed infant or the effects of sumatriptan on milk production.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for ONZETRA Xsail and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from sumatriptan or from the underlying maternal condition.
Infant exposure to sumatriptan can be minimized by avoiding breastfeeding for 12 hours after treatment with ONZETRA Xsail.
Following subcutaneous administration of a 6-mg dose of sumatriptan injection in 5 lactating volunteers, sumatriptan was present in milk.
Safety and effectiveness has not been established in pediatric patients younger than 18 years of age.
Two controlled clinical trials evaluated sumatriptan nasal spray (5 to 20 mg) in 1,248 adolescent migraineurs aged 12 to 17 years who treated a single attack. The trials did not establish the efficacy of sumatriptan nasal spray compared with placebo in the treatment of migraine in adolescents. Adverse reactions observed in these clinical trials were similar in nature to those reported in clinical trials in adults.
Five controlled clinical trials (2 single-attack studies, 3 multiple-attack studies) evaluating oral sumatriptan (25 to 100 mg) in pediatric patients aged 12 to 17 years enrolled a total of 701 adolescent migraineurs. These studies did not establish the efficacy of oral sumatriptan compared to placebo in the treatment of migraine in adolescents. Adverse reactions observed in these clinical trials were similar in nature to those reported in clinical trials in adults. The frequency of all adverse reactions in these patients appeared to be both dose- and age-dependent, with younger patients reporting reactions more commonly than older adolescents.
Postmarketing experience documents that serious adverse reactions have occurred in the pediatric population after use of subcutaneous, oral, and/or intranasal sumatriptan. These reports include reactions similar in nature to those reported rarely in adults, including stroke, visual loss, and death. A myocardial infarction has been reported in a 14-year-old male following the use of oral sumatriptan; clinical signs occurred within 1 day of drug administration. Clinical data to determine the frequency of serious adverse reactions in pediatric patients who might receive subcutaneous, oral, or nasal sumatriptan are not presently available.
Clinical trials of ONZETRA Xsail did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience with subcutaneous, oral, and liquid nasal spray sumatriptan has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, treatment for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased or abnormal hepatic function, renal function, or cardiac function, more pronounced blood pressure increases, higher risks for unrecognized CAD, and/or concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
A cardiovascular evaluation is recommended for geriatric patients who have other cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, strong family history of CAD) prior to receiving ONZETRA Xsail [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
The clearance of oral sumatriptan was reduced in patients with moderate hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Similar changes can be expected following intranasal administration. The effect of severe hepatic impairment was NOT evaluated using oral formulation. The use of ONZETRA Xsail in patients with severe hepatic impairment is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4)].
In clinical trials, the highest single doses of sumatriptan nasal spray administered without significant reactions were 40 mg to 12 volunteers and 40 mg to 85 subjects with migraine, which is twice the highest single recommended dose. In addition, 12 volunteers were administered a total daily dose of 60 mg (20 mg 3 times daily) for 3.5 days without significant adverse reactions.
Overdose in animals has been fatal and has been heralded by convulsions, tremor, paralysis, inactivity, ptosis, erythema of the extremities, abnormal respiration, cyanosis, ataxia, mydriasis, salivation, and lacrimation.
The elimination half-life of ONZETRA Xsail is about 3 hours [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] , and therefore monitoring of patients after overdose with ONZETRA Xsail should continue for at least 15 hours or while symptoms persist.
It is unknown what effect hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis has on the serum concentrations of sumatriptan.
ONZETRA Xsail (sumatriptan nasal powder) uses a disposable, single use nosepiece which is attached by the patient to a delivery device body which has a mouthpiece and a piercing mechanism. The nosepiece contains a hypromellose capsule filled with 11 mg sumatriptan base (as 15.4 mg of sumatriptan succinate) in a dry powder form. Two nosepieces comprise a single 22 mg dose. ONZETRA is for nasal administration with the Xsail device only.
The active component of ONZETRA Xsail is sumatriptan, a selective 5-hydroxy-tryptamine receptor subtype 1 (5-HT1 ) agonist (triptan), as the succinate salt. Sumatriptan succinate is chemically designated as 3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-N-methyl-indole-5-methanesulfonamide succinate (1:1), and it has the following structure:
The empirical formula is C14 H21 N3 O2 S ∙ C4 H6 O4 , representing a molecular weight of 413.5.
Sumatriptan succinate is a white to off-white powder that is readily soluble in water and in saline.
The ONZETRA Xsail breath-powered delivery device is used to deliver the dry powder contained in the disposable nosepiece (in a capsule) into the nostril using breath exhaled into the device. The Xsail delivery device has a flexible mouthpiece to adjust to individual anatomic variations. Under standardized in vitro testing, the Xsail device delivers a mean of 10 mg sumatriptan per nosepiece when tested at a flow rate of 30 L/min for 4 seconds (2 L total). The amount of sumatriptan delivered to the nasal cavity will depend on patient factors such as expiratory flow. Delivered dose was measured in patients with migraine headache treated in clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy of the product. In these trials, each nosepiece delivered an average dose of 7.5-8.1 mg, providing a total dose of 15-16.2 mg per treatment episode from two nosepieces.
Sumatriptan binds with high affinity to human cloned 5-HT1B/1D receptors. Sumatriptan presumably exerts its therapeutic effects in the treatment of migraine headache through agonist effects at the 5-HT1B/1D receptors on intracranial blood vessels and sensory nerves of the trigeminal system, which result in cranial vessel constriction and inhibition of pro-inflammatory neuropeptide release.
Significant elevation in blood pressure, including hypertensive crisis, has been reported in patients treated with sumatriptan, with and without a history of hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].
Peripheral (Small) Arteries
In healthy volunteers (N = 18), a trial evaluating the effects of sumatriptan injection on peripheral (small vessel) arterial reactivity failed to detect a clinically significant increase in peripheral resistance.
Transient increases in blood pressure observed in some patients in clinical studies carried out during development of sumatriptan as a treatment for migraine were not accompanied by any clinically significant changes in heart rate.
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